“Women who use MHT do not gain any more weight than women who do not use MHT. Ageing, social, lifestyle and medical factors are the main causes of midlife weight gain”. Read more

If you would like to find out what menopause fact sheets information is applicable to you, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider…”.1

Umbrella

What may the Menopause Fact Sheets Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Factsheets/Fact Sheets
  • Information Sheets
  • MenoNotes

Date

What can it be important to be clear about with menopause fact sheets?

It can be important to be clear about the date of all information including the date of menopause fact sheets because this information may have been updated.

Intended Audience

What can it be important to be clear about with the intended audience of menopause fact sheets?

It can be important to be clear about the intended audience of all information including the intended audience of menopause fact sheets, because this information may be different for you in your country.

Note

What may menopause fact sheets note?

In Information Sheets the Australasian Menopause Society elaborate on:

“Note: Medical and scientific information provided and endorsed by the Australasian Menopause Society might not be relevant to a particular person’s circumstances and should always be discussed with that person’s own healthcare provider”.1

The (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health fact sheets may include:

“Disclaimer: This information does not replace medical advice. If you are worried about your health, talk to your doctor or healthcare team.

Menopause Fact SheetsWe write health information for people with diverse backgrounds, experiences and identities. We use the term ‘women’, but we acknowledge that this term is not inclusive of all people who may use our content”.2

Health Care Provider

What if I would like to find out what menopause fact sheets information is applicable to me?

If you would like to find out what menopause fact sheets information is applicable to you, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this.

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics A-Z related to Menopause Fact Sheets?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Menopause Fact Sheets?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Information Sheets. Australasian Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org.au/hp/information-sheets 23Accessed: 23 May 2024
  2. Menopause. Updated May 2023. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/resources/fact-sheets/menopause Accessed: 23 May 2024
Topic Last Updated: 23 May 2024 – Topic Last Reviewed: 23 May 2024

“Hormonal status can affect cognitive function
and over the years there has been conflicting evidence
regarding the risk of dementia and HRT use”.1

Umbrella

What may the Hormone Therapy and Dementia Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Hormone (Replacement) Therapy H(R)T
  • Hormone Medicines
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
  • Hormone Therapy (HT)
  • Hormones
  • Medicines for Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT)
  • Menopause Hormone Medicines
  • Menopause Medicines

Date

What can it be important to be clear about with hormone therapy (HT) information?

It can be important to be clear about the date of all information including the date of HT information, because this information may have been updated.

Symptoms or Chronic Conditions

What can it also be important to be clear about with HT information?

It can also be important to be clear about whether HT information is about the use of HT for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats and vaginal dryness or for the prevention of chronic conditions such as dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer and osteoporosis.

Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Dementia Study, 28 June 2023

What is the Conclusions of the Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Dementia: Nationwide, Nested Case-Control Study, published 28 June 2023?

The Conclusions of the Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Dementia: Nationwide, Nested Case-Control Study is:

Conclusions Menopausal hormone therapy was positively associated with development of all cause dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, even in women who received treatment at the age of 55 years or younger. The increased rate of dementia was similar between continuous and cyclic treatment. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these findings represent an actual effect of menopausal hormone therapy on dementia risk, or whether they reflect an underlying predisposition in women in need of these treatments”.2

In Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Dementia [Editorials], published 28 June 2023, in response to the above study Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Dementia: Nationwide, Nested Case-Control Study, what do the authors note:

In Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Dementia [Editorials], the authors note:

“Pourhadi and colleagues’ new study reported an association with increased risk of dementia even in women using menopausal hormone therapy before the age of 55 years for less than or equal to five years, which is within the age range recommended by the North American Menopause Society. Their findings contradict those of the WHIMS-Y trial and other trials that reported no effect on cognitive function among women who were randomly assigned to hormone therapy in early menopause. Although, longer follow-up is needed to determine participants’ dementia risk later in life”.3

Where may I find Links related to the Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Dementia: Nationwide, Nested Case-Control Study, published 28 June 2023?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Dementia Risk Under the Age of 60 Years

Under the age of 60 years, can starting hormone therapy (HT) increase the risk of dementia?

On page two in HRT Benefits and Risks, published November 2020, the (British) Women’s Health Concern note:

“Hormonal status can affect cognitive function and over the years there has been conflicting evidence regarding the risk of dementia and HRT use. Based on the current evidence, women can be reassured that HRT is unlikely to increase the risk of dementia or be detrimental to cognitive function in women initiating HRT under the age of 60 years”.4

Dementia Risk Older than 65 Years

Older than 65 years, can starting HT increase the risk of dementia?

On page one in Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use: Potential Risks, published July 2022, the North American Menopause Society (NAMS) note:

“If started in women aged older than 65 years, HT might increase the risk of dementia”.5

Reducing Dementia Risk With HT

Is HT recommended to reduce the risk of dementia in women experiencing the menopause?

No. On page three in the Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause, first published online 10 June 2022, one of the recommendations is:

Hormone Therapy and Dementia

  • “Women should be reassured that HRT is unlikely to increase the risk of dementia or to have a detrimental effect on cognitive function in women initiating HRT before the age of 65. However, HRT should not be initiated for the purpose of reducing the risk of dementia in women experiencing the menopause. National as well as international recommendations do not support the use of HRT for the primary or secondary prevention of dementia”.6

In Hormones and Dementia: Does Hormone Replacement Therapy Reduce Dementia Risk? the (British) Alzheimer’s Society elaborate on:

“The research into whether taking oestrogen (as part of HRT) can reduce women’s risk of dementia has been mixed. Some studies suggest that oestrogen may reduce dementia risk whilst others say it increases it”.7

Documentary: Sex, Mind and the Menopause

What did the Channel 4 documentary Davina McCall: Sex, Mind and the Menopause discuss about HT and dementia?

In Menopause: HRT’s Brain-Protecting Effect May Be Overstated, published 11 May 2022, the authors note:

“The documentary, called Sex, Mind and the Menopause, discussed how the menopause can cause a range of brain-related symptoms, including brain fog, mood changes and memory problems. It also suggested that taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) some years before the menopause may be the solution to these problems – alongside potentially halving a woman’s risk of developing dementia”.8

In Menopause: HRT’s Brain-Protecting Effect May Be Overstated the authors response to the Documentary also includes:

“Hormone replacement therapy can be effective for many women in alleviating a range of menopausal symptoms, particularly hot flushes. Whether HRT can prevent dementia or alleviate brain-related symptoms due to the menopause is still unclear. But fortunately, any brain changes that happen because of the menopause are usually temporary”.9

Health Care Provider

What if I would like to start HT?

If you would like to start HT, it may be in your best interest to also choose to talk to your health care provider about this.

On page one in Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use the NAMS elaborate on:

“Every woman is different, and you will decide about whether to use HT based on the severity of your symptoms, your personal and family health history, and your own beliefs about menopause treatments. Your healthcare professional will be able to help you with your decision”.10

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics A-Z related to Hormone Therapy and Dementia?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Hormone Therapy and Dementia?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. HRT Benefits and Risks. Updated: November 2020:2. Women’s Health Concern https://www.womens-health-concern.org/help-and-advice/factsheets/hrt-know-benefits-risks/ Accessed: 23 May 2024
  2. Pourhadi, N., Mørch, L. S. Holm, E.A. Torp-Pederson, C., Meaidi, A. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Dementia: Nationwide, Nested Case-Control Study. 28 June 2023. https://www.bmj.com/content/381/bmj-2022-072770 Accessed: 23 May 2024
  3. Kantarci, K., Manson, JA, E. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Dementia [Editorials]. 28 June 2023:381. https://www.bmj.com/content/381/bmj.p1404 Accessed: 23 May 2024
  4. HRT Benefits and Risks. Updated: November 2020:2. Women’s Health Concern https://www.womens-health-concern.org/help-and-advice/factsheets/hrt-know-benefits-risks/ Accessed: 23 May 2024
  5. Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use: Potential Risks. 2022:1. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/professional/menonote-deciding-about-ht-2022.pdf Accessed: 23 May 2024
  6. Hamoda, H., Mukherjee, A., Morris, E., Baldeweg, S. E., Jayesena, C. N., Briggs, P., Moger, S. Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause. First Published Online 12 June 2022 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/20533691221104879 Accessed: 23 May 2024
  7. Hormones and Dementia: Does Hormone Replacement Therapy Reduce Dementia Risk? Alzheimer’s Society https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/about-dementia/risk-factors-and-prevention/hormones-and-dementia Accessed: 23 May 2024
  8. Hogervorst, E., D’Donnell, E. and Hardy, R. Menopause: HRT’s Brain-Protecting Effect May Be Overstated. 11 May 2022 https://theconversation.com/menopause-hrts-brain-protecting-effect-may-be-overstated-182449 Accessed: 23 May 2024
  9. Hogervorst, E., D’Donnell, E. and Hardy, R. Menopause: HRT’s Brain-Protecting Effect May Be Overstated. 11 May 2022 https://theconversation.com/menopause-hrts-brain-protecting-effect-may-be-overstated-182449 Accessed: 23 May 2024
  10. Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use. 2022:1. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/professional/menonote-deciding-about-ht-2022.pdf Accessed: 23 May 2024
Topic Last Updated: 23 May 2024 – Topic Last Reviewed: 23 May 2024

“Irregular periods are common and normal during
perimenopause, but other conditions
can cause abnormalities in menstrual bleeding”.1

Umbrella
What may the Perimenopausal Bleeding Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB)
  • Perimenopausal Bleeding

Perimenopause

What is perimenopause?

DotS the definition of perimenopause may vary. The Australasian Menopause Society’s (AMS) definition is:

“Peri-menopause refers to the time from the onset of a change in menstrual cycle pattern or onset of menopausal symptoms, through to one year after the last menstrual period. The average duration is 4-6 years with onset in the fifth decade of life (40’s)”.2

Period Changes

During perimenopause, how may periods change?

In What Is Menopause? What Is Perimenopause (The Menopausal Transition?) the AMS note:

“Hallmarks of the perimenopause are changes in a woman’s menstrual periods such as, irregular periods or changes in flow. Cycles can be shorter or longer in length”.3

Skipping Periods

During perimenopause is it normal to skip periods?

The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) explain:

“During the transition to menopause (called perimenopause), it is normal to skip periods, but very frequent or heavy bleeding episodes often requires an evaluation by your healthcare provider. Any bleeding after menopause requires an evaluation by your healthcare provider”.4

Spotting

What does spotting mean?

In Mayo Clinic Q and A: Spotting, Perimenopause and Menopause the (United States) Mayo Clinic elaborate on the answer to the question:

DEAR MAYO CLINIC: I am 52 and recently had gone 10 months without a period, so I had assumed I was in menopause. But, over the past three months, I’ve noticed some light spotting. Does this mean I’m not in menopause? How do I know when I’m in menopause, and do I need to see a gynecologist or health care provider about this issue?

ANSWER: It’s possible that you haven’t reached menopause yet. Clinically, menopause is defined as going without a period for one year. At 10 months, you don’t quite meet that threshold, but it is possible that you are just beginning menopause. However, depending upon when you last saw your health care provider and had a pelvic exam, it might be worthwhile to make an appointment, as there are a number of conditions where breakthrough bleeding is the first indication of an issue…”.5

Menstrual Calendar

Where may I find a menstrual calendar to keep a record of perimenopausal bleeding?

In MenoNotes the NAMS include:

Follow up

When may follow up be required?

In Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Bleeding the European Menopause and Andropause Society note:

“Women who experience perimenopausal or postmenopausal bleeding but who have no clear diagnosis or who have recurrent or persistent symptoms, should be followed up, typically after 6 months”.6

Health Care Provider

What if I think I have perimenopausal bleeding?

If you think you have perimenopausal bleeding, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk your health care provider about this. In Menstrual Calendar the NAMS note:

“Call your health care provider if you experience:

  • Periods that are much heavier than usual
  • Spotting or bleeding between periods
  • Periods that last longer than 10 days
  • Bleeding after sex
  • Frequent periods (fewer than 21 days between periods)
  • Any bleeding after menopause”.7

In Perimenopause: How Do I Know If Changes In My Periods Are Normal Perimenopausal Symptoms or Something To Be Concerned About? the (United States) Cleveland Clinic elaborate on:

“Irregular periods are common and normal during perimenopause, but other conditions can cause abnormalities in menstrual bleeding. If any of the following situations apply to you, see a healthcare provider to rule out other causes.

  • Your periods are changing to become very heavy, or accompanied by blood clots
  • Your periods last several days longer than usual
  • You spot or bleed after your period
  • You experience spotting after sex
  • Your periods occur closer together”.8

In Your Period: When To See Your Doctor the (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health explain:

“There are many reasons you might need to see your doctor about your period. For example, if:

  • Your periods pattern change
  • You have increasingly heavier periods
  • You have long periods (more than eight days)
  • Your periods come less than three weeks apart
  • Your periods come more than two to three months apart

Also see your doctor if:

  • You bleed between periods (especially after menopause)
  • You bleed after having sex
  • You have painful periods that affect your quality of life”.9

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics A-Z related to Perimenopausal Bleeding?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Perimenopausal Bleeding?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Perimenopause: How Do I Know If Changes In My Periods Are Normal Perimenopausal Symptoms or Something To Be Concerned About? Last Reviewed: 05 October 2021. Cleveland Clinic https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/21608-perimenopause Accessed: 22 May 2024
  2. What Is Menopause? What Is Perimenopause (The Menopausal Transition?). Content Created May 2022. Australasian Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org.au/hp/information-sheets/what-is-menopause Accessed: 22 May 2024
  3. What Is Menopause? What Is Perimenopause (The Menopausal Transition?). Content Created May 2022. Australasian Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org.au/hp/information-sheets/what-is-menopause Accessed: 22 May 2024
  4. Menstrual Calendar. 2015. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2015/menonote-menstrual-calendar-english.pdf Accessed: 22 May 2024
  5. Mayo Clinic Q and A: Spotting, Perimenopause and Menopause. 21 December 2020. Mayo Clinic https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/mayo-clinic-q-and-a-spotting-perimenopause-and-menopause/ Accessed: 22 May 2024
  6. Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Bleeding. 2022. European Menopause and Andropause Society https://emas-online.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/Perimenopausal-and-postmenopausal-bleeding.pdf Accessed: 22 May 2024
  7. Menstrual Calendar. 2015. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2015/menonote-menstrual-calendar-english.pdf Accessed: 22 May 2024
  8. Perimenopause: How Do I Know If Changes In My Periods Are Normal Perimenopausal Symptoms or Something To Be Concerned About? Last Reviewed: 05 October 2021. Cleveland Clinic https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/21608-perimenopause Accessed: 22 May 2024
  9. Your Period: When To See Your Doctor. Last Updated: 21 May 2024 | Last Reviewed: 25 March 2024. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/periods/your-period Accessed: 22 May 2024
Topic Last Updated: 22 May 2024 – Topic Last Reviewed: 22 May 2024

“You should not ignore these problems because without help, they rarely go away and usually get worse over time. They can interfere with work, social activities…”.1

Umbrella
What may the Menopause Bladder and Bowel Control Problems Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Bladder Control
  • Bowel Control
  • Continence
  • Incontinence
  • Light Bladder Leakage (LBL)
  • Urinary Control

Menopause

Is there an association between menopause and bladder and bowel control?

In Women: Menopause – Menopause and Continence the Continence Foundation of Australia elaborate on:

“There are a few ways that menopause can impact your bladder and bowel control. These include:

  • Weak pelvic floor muscles…
  • A less elastic bladder…
  • Vaginal dryness…
  • Weight gain…
  • Other health problems…
  • Hysterectomy…
  • Anal trauma / surgery…”.2

Symptoms

What are the most common incontinence symptoms?

In Women: Menopause – Menopause and Continence: Symptoms the Continence Foundation of Australia explain:

Menopause Bladder and Bowel Control Problems“During menopause, passing urine frequently and the urgent need to pass urine are the most common incontinence symptoms. Other symptoms include:

  • Leakage of urine with coughs, sneezes, or exercise
  • Leakage of urine on the way to the toilet
  • Getting up one or more times per night to pass urine (nocturia)
  • Frequent urinary tract infections
  • Rushing to the toilet to open bowels
  • Being unable to control wind
  • Constipation”.3

In Menopause: Symptoms – Common Menopausal Symptoms the (United Kingdom) NHS also note common menopausal symptoms include:

  • “…Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs)…”.4

Urinary Tract Infection

What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?

DotS the definition of a UTI may vary. The (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health’s (JH) definition is:

“A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection that can affect your:

  • Bladder (Cystitis)
  • Urethra (Urethritis)
  • Kidneys (Pyelonephritis)”.5

In Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): What Is A UTI? the JH also note:

“The most common type of UTI in women is  an infection of the bladder (cystitis)”.6

Diary

Menopause Bladder and Bowel Control ProblemsMay keeping a diary be helpful?

Yes. In Talking To Your Doctor the (United States) National Association for Continence (NAFC) elaborate on:

“By keeping a bladder or bowel diary, you are not only educating and informing yourself, you are assuming responsibility for playing a role in getting diagnosed correctly”.7

Diary Information

What important information should a diary contain?

In Talking To Your Doctor the NAFC elaborate on:

“Share your bladder diary or bowel diary with your physician or nurse. It should contain such important information as:

  • Recorded toilet habits over a 2 day period
  • A list of everything you ate and drank
  • Any nighttime trips to the bathroom? How many?
  • Note the strength of urine flow
  • Any accidents? What happened to cause them?

You might discover more than one set of symptoms and thus face multiple solutions. The point is to create a record of all the symptoms in a context that will be helpful to your doctor in reaching a diagnosis”.8

Helpline

May some Countries have a national continence/incontinence Helpline?

Yes. Your Country may have a Helpline similar to the Continence Foundation of Australia’s National Continence Helpline.

Toilet Maps, Cards or Apps

May some Countries have toilet maps, cards or Apps?

Yes. Your Country may have a toilet map similar to Australia’s National Public Toilet Map: About the Toilet Map which:

“The National Public Toilet Map shows the location of more than 23,000 public and private public facilities across Australia, including toilets, adult change and baby care. Information is provided about each toilet, such as location, accessibility details, opening hours and features like sharps disposal and showers”.9

Or your Country may have a card or App similar to the (United Kingdom) Bladder & Bowel Community’s (B&B) Free Just Can’t Wait Toilet Card.

Health Care Provider

What if I think I have menopause bladder or bowel control problems?

If you think you have menopause bladder or bowel control problems, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this.

The Continence Foundation of Australia encourage us to seek help and explain:


Menopause Bladder and Bowel Control Problems“You should not ignore these problems because without help, they rarely go away and usually get worse over time. They can interfere with work, social activities, as well as sexual and personal relationships”.10

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics A-Z related to Menopause Bladder and Bowel Control Problems?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Menopause Bladder and Bowel Control Problems?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Women: Menopause – Menopause and Continence: Symptoms. Last Updated: 15 July 2021. Last Reviewed: 01 April 2020. Continence Foundation of Australia https://www.continence.org.au/who-it-affects/women/menopause Accessed: 21 May 2024
  2. Women: Menopause – Menopause and Continence. Last Updated: 15 July 2021. Last Reviewed: 01 April 2020. Continence Foundation of Australia https://www.continence.org.au/who-it-affects/women/menopause Accessed: 21 May 2024
  3. Women: Menopause – Menopause and Continence: Symptoms. Last Updated: 15 July 2021. Last Reviewed: 01 April 2020. Continence Foundation of Australia https://www.continence.org.au/who-it-affects/women/menopause Accessed: 21 May 2024
  4. Menopause: Symptoms – Common Menopausal Symptoms. Page Last Reviewed: 17 May 2022. NHS https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/menopause/symptoms/#common-menopausal-symptoms Accessed: 21 May 2024
  5. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): What Is A UTI? Last Updated: 23 April 2024 | Last Reviewed: 17 January 2024. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/bladder/urinary-tract-infections-utis-2 Accessed: 21 May 2024
  6. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): What Is A UTI? Last Updated: 23 April 2024 | Last Reviewed: 17 January 2024. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/bladder/urinary-tract-infections-utis-2 Accessed: 21 May 2024
  7. Talking To Your Doctor. National Association for Continence https://www.nafc.org/talking-to-your-doctor Accessed: 21 May 2024
  8. Talking To Your Doctor. National Association for Continence https://www.nafc.org/talking-to-your-doctor Accessed: 21 May 2024
  9. National Public Toilet Map: About the Toilet Map. National Continence Program https://toiletmap.gov.au/about Accessed: 21 May 2024
  10. Women: Menopause – Menopause and Continence: Symptoms. Last Updated: 15 July 2021. Last Reviewed: 01 April 2020. Continence Foundation of Australia https://www.continence.org.au/who-it-affects/women/menopause Accessed: 21 May 2024
Topic Last Updated: 21 May 2024 – Topic Last Reviewed: 21 May 2024

“Clinical trials are part of clinical research
and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials
look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease”.1

Umbrella
What may the Clinical Trials Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Clinical Trials/Research/Studies

Clinical Trials

What are clinical trials?

DotS the definition of clinical trials may vary. The (United States) National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) definition is:

“Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease”.2

In NIH Clinical Research Trials and You: The Basics – What Are Clinical Trials and Why Would I Want To Take Part? the NIH also explain:

“Clinical trials can study:

  • New drugs or new combinations of drugs
  • New ways of doing surgery
  • New medical devices
  • New ways to use existing treatments
  • New ways to change behaviors to improve health
  • New ways to improve the quality of life for people with acute or chronic illnesses”.3

Goal

What is the goal of clinical trials?

In NIH Clinical Research Trials and You: The Basics – What Are Clinical Trials and Why Would I Want To Take Part Part? the NIH elaborate on:

“The goal of clinical trials is to determine if these treatment, prevention, and behavior approaches are safe and effective. People take part in clinical trials for many reasons”.4

Participation

Why do people participate in clinical trials?

In Is A Clinical Trial Right for You? the (United States National Institute of Health) NIH MedlinePlus Magazine explain:

Clinical Trials

“Some people participate in clinical trials because none of the standard (approved) treatment options have worked, or they are unable to tolerate certain side effects. For others, it’s an opportunity to help researchers find new ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases”.5

Health Care Provider

What if I would like to participate in a clinical trial?

If you would like to participate in a clinical trial it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this. In Get Involved In Research: Why Get Involved In Research Studies? the (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health elaborate on:

“Choosing to join a study is a personal decision. Before you join a study, learn about what you will be asked to do and how much time this might take. Also ask about possible risks and benefits. Researchers can provide you with a ‘plain language explanation’ of the study which will help you with your decision”.6

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics A-Z related to Clinical Trials?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Clinical Trials?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted:

Sources

  1. NIH Clinical Research Trials and You: The Basics – What Are Clinical Trials and Why Would I Want To Take Part? This Page Last Reviewed on 03 October 2022. National Institutes of Health https://www.nih.gov/health/clinicaltrials/basics.htm Accessed: 21 May 2024
  2. NIH Clinical Research Trials and You: The Basics – What Are Clinical Trials and Why Would I Want To Take Part? This Page Last Reviewed: 03 October 2022. National Institutes of Health https://www.nih.gov/health/clinicaltrials/basics.htm Accessed: 21 May 2024
  3. NIH Clinical Research Trials and You: The Basics – What Are Clinical Trials and Why Would I Want To Take Part? This Page Last Reviewed: 03 October 2022. National Institutes of Health https://www.nih.gov/health/clinicaltrials/basics.htm Accessed: 21 May 2024
  4. NIH Clinical Research Trials and You: The Basics – What Are Clinical Trials and Why Would I Want To Take Part? This Page Last Reviewed: 03 October 2022. National Institutes of Health https://www.nih.gov/health/clinicaltrials/basics.htm Accessed: 21 May 2024
  5. Is A Clinical Trial Right for You? 11 August 2020. NIH MedlinePlus Magazine https://magazine.medlineplus.gov/article/is-a-clinical-trial-right-for-you Accessed: 21 May 2024
  6. Get Involved In Research: Why Get Involved In Research Studies? https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/research/get-involved-in-research Accessed: 21 May 2024
Topic Last Updated: 21 May 2024 – Topic Last Reviewed: 21 May 2024

“If you would like to find out what hormone therapy timeline information is applicable to you, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health…”. Meno Martha

Umbrella
What may the Hormone Therapy Timeline Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Danish Study
  • Global Consensus Statement on Menopausal Hormone Therapy [2013]
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) Timeline
  • Hormone Therapy (HT) Timeline
  • Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)
  • Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) Timeline
  • Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Midlife Health
  • Menopausal Hormone Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions
  • Menopause: Diagnosis and Management – Information for the Public [NICE Guidelines]
  • Million Women Study (MWS)
  • NICE Guidelines (NICE)
  • Revised Global Consensus Statement on Menopausal Hormone Therapy [2016]
  • Women’s Health Initiative Study
  • Women’s Midlife Health and Menopausal Hormone Therapy

1965 Onward

From 1965 onward, what may a hormone therapy (HT) timeline include?

In HRT: The History – HRT Timeline the (British) Women’s Health Concern (WHC) provide a hormone replacement therapy (HRT) timeline from 1965 onward.

2002 OnwardHormone Therapy Timeline

From 2002 onward, what may a HT timeline include?

In HRT: The History – HRT Timeline the WHC provide a HRT timeline from 1965 onward. Timelines may include:

2002
Women’s Health Initiative Study (WHI)

 

2003
Million Women Study (MWS)

 

2012
Danish Study

 

2012
Menopausal Hormone Therapy
for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions

 

2013
Global Consensus Statement
on Menopausal Hormone Therapy

 

2013
Updated 2013 International Menopause Society Recommendations
on Menopausal Hormone Therapy
and Preventative Strategies for Midlife Health

 

2016
2016 IMS Recommendations
on Women’s Midlife Health
and Menopause Hormone Therapy

 

2016
Revised Global Consensus Statement
on Menopausal Hormone Therapy

 

2017
Hormone Therapy In Postmenopausal Women:
Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions

 

2017
The 2017 Hormone Therapy Position Statement
of The North American Menopause Society

 

2019
Global Consensus Position Statement
on the Use of Testosterone Therapy for Women

 

2019
Menopause: Diagnosis and Management –
Information for the Public (NICE Guidelines)
[National Institute for Health and Care Excellence]

 

2020
BMS & WHC’s 2020 Recommendations on
Hormone Replacement Therapy In Menopausal Women
[British Menopause Society & Women’s Health Concern]

 

2022
Hormone Therapy In Postmenopausal Persons:
Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions

 

2022
Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society,
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and
Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations
for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause

 

2022
The 2022 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of
The North American Menopause Society

(Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use)

01 May 2024
The Women’s Health Initiative
Randomized Trials and Clinical Practice

Health Care Provider

What if I would like to find out what HT timeline information is applicable to me?

If you would like to find out what HT timeline information is applicable to you, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this.

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics A-Z related to Hormone Therapy Timeline?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Hormone Therapy Timeline?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

“Hormone therapy is one of the most effective treatments available for bothersome hot flashes and night sweats. If hot flashes and night sweats are disrupting your daily…”.1

Umbrella

What may the Hormone Therapy Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Hormone (Replacement) Therapy H(R)T
  • Hormone Medicines
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
  • Hormone Therapy (HT)
  • Hormones
  • Medicines for Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT)
  • Menopause Hormone Medicines
  • Menopause Medicines

Date

What can it be important to be clear about with hormone therapy (HT) information?

It can be important to be clear about the date of all information including the date of HT information, because this information may have been updated.

Symptoms or Chronic Conditions

What can it also be important to be clear about with HT information?

It can also be important to be clear about whether HT information is about the use of HT for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats and vaginal dryness or for the prevention of chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and osteoporosis.

Definition

What is hormone therapy (HT)?

DotS the definition of HT may vary. In Menopause Management Options: Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) – What Is MHT? the (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (JH) definition is:

Hormone Therapy“Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), formerly known as hormone replacement therapy (HRT), helps manage menopausal symptoms when they interfere with your life. Menopausal symptoms are caused by lowering levels of oestrogen hormones. MHT is the medical replacement of female hormones oestrogen and progesterone, and sometimes testosterone”.2

In Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): About Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) the (United Kingdom) NHS’s definition is:

“Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a treatment used to help menopause symptoms. It replaces the hormones oestrogen and progesterone, which fall to low levels as you approach the menopause”.3

In Glossary of Terms: Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)/ Hormone Therapy (HT) the Australasian Menopause Society’s (AMS) definition is:

“MHT are hormones that are prescribed during the menopause transition and menopause to alleviate oestrogen deficiency symptoms such as hot flushes, mood swings, vaginal dryness and to prevent or treat osteoporosis. MHT is also recommended for women with premature ovarian insufficiency.

Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) is the term for what was formerly referred to as Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)”.4

In Menopause Glossary: H – Hormone Therapy (HT) the NAMS’s definition is:

Hormone therapy (HT). Prescription drugs used most often when treating menopause symptoms. Encompasses ET and EPT”.5

ET

What is ET?

ET can be an abbreviation for Estrogen Therapy.

EPT

What is EPT?

EPT can be an abbreviation for Estrogen Plus Progestogen Therapy.

Contraceptive or Not

Is HT a contraceptive?

No. On page four in Contraception for the Older Woman: Hormone Replacement Therapy the WHC note:

“It is important to realise that HRT is not a method of contraception”.6

Effective or Not

How effective is HT?

On page one in Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use: Potential Benefits, published July 2022, the NAMS note:

“Hormone therapy is one of the most effective treatments available for bothersome hot flashes and night sweats. If hot flashes and night sweats are disrupting your daily activities and sleep, HT may improve sleep and fatigue, mood, ability to concentrate, and overall quality of life”.7

Types

Are there different types of HT?

Yes. In HRT: Which HRT? the (British) Women’s Health Concern explain:

“The type of HRT most suited to a woman will depend on a variety of factors, including her stage in the menopausal process, and whether or not she has had a hysterectomy. Most forms of HRT combine different amounts of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone (synthetic progesterone is called progestogen).

There are over 50 different combinations of HRT currently available. Most women will make their choice whether to take HRT, and which form of HRT to take, with the help of their doctor”.8

Dose, Duration and Follow Up

What does the FDA note about choosing to use HT?

In Menopause: Hormone Therapy – What Is Hormone Therapy for Menopause? the (United States) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) note:

“Menopause hormone therapy is not for everyone. Like all medicines, hormone therapy has benefits and risks. Talk with your health care provider about hormone therapy. If you decide to use hormone therapy, use it at the lowest dose that helps. Also use hormones for the shortest time that you need them”.9

In BMS & WHC’s 2020 Recommendations on Hormone Replacement Therapy In Menopausal Women: Summary Consensus Statement – Key Points the British Menopause Society and Women’s Health Concern (BMS & WHC) also note:

“The HRT dosage, regimen and duration should be individualised, with annual evaluation of advantages and disadvantages”.10

The 2023 Practitioner’s Toolkit for Managing Menopause

Do the most robust menopause Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) support MHT as the most effective treatment to alleviate VMS [Vasomotor Symptoms]?

In The 2023 Practitioner’s Toolkit for Managing Menopause: Management – Considerations for All Women At Menopause: Menopausal Hormone Therapy, published online 30 October 2023, the authors explain:

“The most robust menopause Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) support MHT as the most effective treatment to alleviate VMS”.11

2022 Joint Position Statement

What does the Joint Position Statement by the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause include about HT?

In the Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause, first published online, the 22 recommendations and more, include:

  • “The decision whether to take HRT, the dose and duration of its use should be made on an individualised basis after discussing the benefits and risks with each patient. This should be considered in the context of the overall benefits obtained from using HRT including symptom control and improving quality of life as well as considering the bone and cardiovascular benefits associated with HRT use. Discussions with women should also cover aspects such as when to consider stopping HRT and how this can be done (by gradually reducing the dose of HRT). No arbitrary limits should be set on age or duration of HRT intake”.12

2022 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The NAMS

What does The 2022 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society, published July 2022, note about HT?

In The 2022 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society the NAMS note:

“Hormone therapy remains the most effective treatment for vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and the genitourinary syndrome of menopause and has been shown to prevent bone loss and fracture. The risks of hormone therapy differ depending on type, dose, duration of use, route of administration, timing of initiation, and whether a progestogen is used. Treatment should be individualized using the best available evidence to maximize benefits and minimize risks, with periodic reevaluation of the benefits and risks of continuing therapy”.13

Benefits and Risks

What are the benefits and risks of HT?

In Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Benefits and Risks of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) the NHS note:

“The benefits and risks of taking HRT depend on your age, your menopause symptoms and any risk factors you have.

If you’re under 60 years old, have menopause symptoms, and are not at high risk of breast cancer or blood clots, the benefits of HRT are likely to outweigh the risks.

Talk to a GP, who will help you decide”.14

In Menopause: Diagnosis & Treatment – Treatment the (United States) Mayo Clinic explain:

“Before deciding on any form of treatment, talk with your doctor about your options and the risks and benefits involved with each. Review your options yearly, as your needs and treatment options may change”.15

Health Care Provider

What if I to choose to use HT?

If you choose to use HT, it may be in your best interest to also choose to talk to your health care provider about this.

On page two in Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use: Hormone Therapy Options the NAMS elaborate on:

“Each woman must make her own decision about HT with the help of her healthcare professional. If you decide to take HT, the next step is to choose between the many HT options available to find the best dose and route for you. With guidance from your health care professional, you can try different forms of HT until you find the type and dose that treats your symptoms with few adverse effects”.16

The JH also note:

“It can take around six months to find the right MHT. Once you’ve found an MHT that works for you, it’s important to review it with your doctor each year”.17

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics A-Z related to Hormone Therapy?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Hormone Therapy?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use: Potential Benefits. 2022:1. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/professional/menonote-deciding-about-ht-2022.pdf Accessed: 19 May 2024
  2. Menopause Management Options: Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) – What Is MHT? Last Updated: 08 May 2023 | Last Reviewed: 19 August 2022. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/menopause-management Accessed: 19 May 2024
  3. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): About Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). Page Last Reviewed: 07 February 2023. NHS https://www.nhs.uk/medicines/hormone-replacement-therapy-hrt/about-hormone-replacement-therapy-hrt/ Accessed: 19 May 2024
  4. Glossary of Terms: Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)/Hormone Therapy (HT). Content Updated: February 2022. Australasian Menopause Society’s https://www.menopause.org.au/hp/information-sheets/381-glossary-of-terms Accessed: 19 May 2024
  5. Menopause Glossary: H – Hormone Therapy (HT). North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopause-glossary#H Accessed: 19 May 2024
  6. Contraception for the Older Woman: Hormone Replacement Therapy. Updated: November 2022:4. British Women’s Health Concern https://www.womens-health-concern.org/help-and-advice/factsheets/contraception-older-woman/ Accessed: 19 May 2024
  7. Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use: Potential Benefits. 2022:1. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/professional/menonote-deciding-about-ht-2022.pdf Accessed: 19 May 2024
  8. HRT: Which HRT? Publication Date: November 2021. Women’s Health Concern https://www.womens-health-concern.org/help-and-advice/factsheets/hrt/ Accessed: 19 May 2024
  9. Menopause: Hormone Therapy – What Is Hormone Therapy for Menopause? Content Current As of: 14 December 2023. Food and Drug Administration https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ByAudience/ForWomen/WomensHealthTopics/ucm117978.htm Accessed: 19 May 2024
  10. BMS & WHC’s 2020 Recommendations on Hormone Replacement Therapy In Menopausal Women: Summary Consensus Statement – Key Points. Updated March 2021. British Menopause Society and Women’s Health Concern https://thebms.org.uk/publications/consensus-statements/bms-whcs-2020-recommendations-on-hormone-replacement-therapy-in-menopausal-women/ Accessed: 19 May 2024
  11. Davis, S. R., Taylor, S., Hemachandra, C., Magraith, K., Ebeling, P. R., Jane, F., and Islam, R. M. The 2023 Practitioner’s Toolkit for Managing Menopause: Management – Considerations for All Women At Menopause: Menopausal Hormone Therapy First Published Online: 30 October 2023 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13697137.2023.2258783 Accessed: 19 May 2024
  12. Hamoda, H., Mukherjee, A., Morris, E., Baldeweg, S. E., Jayesena, C. N., Briggs, P., Moger, S. Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause. First Published Online 12 June 2022. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/20533691221104879 Accessed: 19 May 2024
  13. The 2022 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause: July 2022 – Volume 29 – Issue 7 – p 767-794 https://journals.lww.com/menopausejournal/Abstract/2022/07000/The_2022_hormone_therapy_position_statement_of_The.4.aspx Accessed: 19 May 2024
  14. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Benefits and Risks of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). Page Last Reviewed: 08 February 2023. NHS https://www.nhs.uk/medicines/hormone-replacement-therapy-hrt/benefits-and-risks-of-hormone-replacement-therapy-hrt/ Accessed: 19 May 2024
  15. Menopause: Diagnosis & Treatment – Treatment. 25 May 2023. Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/menopause/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353401 Accessed: 19 May 2024
  16. Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use: Hormone Therapy Options. 2022:2. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/professional/menonote-deciding-about-ht-2022.pdf Accessed: 19 May 2024
  17. Menopause Management Options: Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) – How Long Do You Need To Take MHT? Last Updated: 19 December 2023 | Last Reviewed: 19 August 2022. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/menopause-management Accessed: 19 May 2024
Topic Last Updated: 23 May 2024 – Topic Last Reviewed: 19 May 2024

“Before menopause, women have a lower risk of heart
disease than men. However, as women age and their
oestrogen levels fall, their risk of cardiovascular…”.1

Umbrella
What may the Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Cardiovascular Conditions
  • Cardiovascular Disease/s (CVD/CVDs)
  • Cardiovascular Disorders
  • Diseases/Disorders of the Heart and Blood Vessels
  • Diseases/Disorders of the Heart and Circulatory System
  • Heart Disease/s
  • Heart and Circulatory Disease
  • Stroke

Cardiovascular Diseases

What are cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)?

DotS the definition of CVDs may vary. In Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs): What Are Cardiovascular Diseases? the World Health Organization’s (WHO) definition is:

“Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and they include:

  • Coronary heart disease – a disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle
  • Cerebrovascular disease – a disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain
  • Peripheral arterial disease – a disease of blood vessels supplying the arms and legs
  • Rheumatic heart disease – damage to the heart muscle and heart valves from rheumatic fever, caused by streptococcal bacteria
  • Congenital heart disease – birth defects that affect the normal development and functioning of the heart caused by malformations of the heart structure from birth; and
  • Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism – blood clots in the leg veins, which can dislodge and move to the heart and lungs”.2

Age

As women age, does their risk of CVD increase?

The (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (JH) note:

“Before menopause, women have a lower risk of heart disease than men. However, as women age and their oestrogen levels fall, their risk of cardiovascular disease increase”.3

Menopause and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

What are menopause and CVD risk factors?

In What Is Menopause? Perimenopause, Menopause and Postmenopause – Postmenopause: Heart Health the JH note:

“After menopause, risk factors for heart disease increase. These include:

  • High blood pressure
  • An increase in total cholesterol
  • An increase in LDL (‘bad’ cholesterol)
  • A decrease in HDL (‘good’ cholesterol)
  • An increase in blood fats, such as triglycerides”.4

In Menopause and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Does Menopause Increase A Woman’s Risk of Heart Disease and Stroke? the American Heart Association’s Go Red for Women elaborate on:

“Cardiovascular risk factors that every woman should know about include:

  • Age at the time of menopause. Women who reach menopause before age 45 have a significantly higher risk of coronary heart disease…
  • The cause and timing of menopause. Menopause caused by surgical removal of both ovaries at an early age can lead to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease…
  • Estrogen. Levels of estrogen, which helps keep blood vessels relaxed and open, start to decline markedly as menopause approaches…
  • Hot flashes and night sweats. Hot flashes and night sweats are the most common menopause-related symptoms and can last up to 10 years….
  • Depression and sleep problems. In some studies, depression and sleep disturbances were linked to an increased risk of heart disease…
  • Increased visceral fat. This type of fat, in the abdominal cavity near vital organs, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer…
  • Cholesterol levels and metabolic syndrome risk. These cardiovascular risk factors appear to increase with menopause beyond the effects of normal aging…”.5

Hot Flushes and Night Sweats

Is there an association between menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS) i.e., hot flushes and night sweats and CVD?

In Vasomotor Menopausal Symptoms and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Pooled Analysis of Six Prospective Studies – Conclusion the authors conclude:

“Severity rather than frequency of VMS (hot flushes and night sweats) was associated with increased risk of CVD. VMS with onset before or after menopause were also associated with increased risk of CVD”.6

Prevention

Is CVD preventable?

In What Is Menopause? Perimenopause, Menopause and Postmenopause – Postmenopause: Heart Health the JH note:

“You can reduce the risk of heart disease by having a healthy lifestyle.
For example:

  • Eat a healthy and nutritious diet
  • Do regular exercise
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Don’t smoke
  • Limit alcohol intake”.7

Know Your Numbers

What numbers do women (and men) need to know?

In Know Your Numbers They Could Just Save Your Life the (United States) Go Red for Women elaborate on:

Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease“Talk to your healthcare provider today to learn about your Blood Pressure, Cholesterol, Blood Sugar and BMI (Body Mass Index). Your heart depends on it”.8

Heart Check

What may a heart check include?

In What Is Menopause? Perimenopause, Menopause and Postmenopause – Postmenopause: Heart Health the JH also note:

“You can also see your doctor for a heart check. They will take your blood pressure and test your blood to determine your risk factors. If you have a high risk of heart disease, your doctor may prescribe medication for high blood pressure and cholesterol”.9

WISEWOMAN Program

What is the (United States) WISEWOMAN program?

Your Country may have a program similar to the WISEWOMAN Program. In WISEWOMAN Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): What Is the WISEWOMAN Program? the (United States) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) elaborate on:

“The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) WISEWOMAN program is at the forefront of the nation’s efforts to achieve optimal cardiovascular health for persons 35-64 years old. The program focuses on women who are uninsured, underinsured, or have lower incomes”.10

Health Care Provider

What if I think I have CVD or I have a family history of CVD?

If you think you have CVD or you have a family history of CVD, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this

In Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Go Red for Women note:

“Talk to your health care team about your risk factors and how to prevent cardiovascular disease before, during and after menopause”.11

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics A-Z related to Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. What Is Menopause? Perimenopause, Menopause and Postmenopause – Postmenopause: Heart Health. Last Updated: 18 January 2024 | Last Reviewed: 19 August 2022. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/about-menopause Accessed: 18 May 2024
  2. Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs): What Are Cardiovascular Diseases? 11 June 2021. World Health Organization https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds) Accessed: 18 May 2024
  3. What Is Menopause? Perimenopause, Menopause and Postmenopause – Postmenopause: Heart Health. Last Updated: 18 January 2024 | Last Reviewed: 19 August 2022. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/about-menopause Accessed: 18 May 2024
  4. What Is Menopause? Perimenopause, Menopause and Postmenopause – Postmenopause: Heart Health. Last Updated: 18 January 2024 | Last Reviewed: 19 August 2022. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/about-menopause Accessed: 18 May 2024
  5. Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease Risk. Last Reviewed: 27 July 2021. Go Red for Women https://www.goredforwomen.org/en/know-your-risk/menopause/menopause-and-cardiovascular-risk Accessed: 18 May 2024
  6. Zhu, D., Chung, H-F., Dobson, A. J., El Khoudary, S. E., Crawford, S., Mishra, G. D. eta al. Vasomotor Menopausal Symptoms and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Pooled Analysis of Six Prospective Studies – Conclusion. 22 June 2020. https://www.ajog.org/article/S0002-9378(20)30664-5/pdf Accessed: 18 May 2024
  7. What Is Menopause? Perimenopause, Menopause and Postmenopause – Postmenopause: Heart Health. Last Updated: 18 January 2024 | Last Reviewed: 19 August 2022. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/about-menopause Accessed: 18 May 2024
  8. Know Your Numbers They Could Just Save Your Life. Go Red for Women https://www.goredforwomen.org/en/know-your-risk/know-your-numbers Accessed: 18 May 2024
  9. What Is Menopause? Perimenopause, Menopause and Postmenopause – Postmenopause: Heart Health. Last Updated: 18 January 2024 | Last Reviewed: 19 August 2022. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/about-menopause Accessed: 18 May 2024
  10. WISEWOMAN Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): What Is the WISEWOMAN Program? 16 November 2023. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/wisewoman/php/faqs/?CDC_AAref_Val=https://www.cdc.gov/wisewoman/faqs.htm Accessed: 18 May 2024
  11. Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease Risk. Last Reviewed: 27 July 2021. Go Red for Women https://www.goredforwomen.org/en/know-your-risk/menopause/menopause-and-cardiovascular-risk Accessed: 18 May 2024
Topic Last Updated: 18 May 2024 – Topic Last Reviewed: 18 May 2024

“Start by learning important heart health terms,
numbers you should know,
and questions to ask your healthcare provider”.1

Umbrella

What may the Healthy Heart Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Cardiovascular Disease Prevention
  • Healthy Heart
  • Heart Disease Prevention
  • Heart Healthy Diet/Eating
  • Heart Healthy Lifestyle

Risk Factors

Is there an association between risk factors and a healthy heart?

In Listen To Your Heart: Women and Heart Disease – Tips for Living A Heart-Healthy Lifestyle the (United States) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) elaborate on:

“There are many things you can do to protect your heart! Start by learning important heart health terms, numbers you should know, and questions to ask your healthcare provider. Living a heart-healthy lifestyle can protect your heart at any age. Take one goal, or risk factor, at a time then address it by taking small steps. Involve friends and family to make your new activities more enjoyable. The bonus —you get to be accountable to someone who cares about you!”2

Know Your Numbers

What numbers do I need to know for a healthy heart?

In Know Your Numbers They Could Just Save Your Life Go Red for Women elaborate on:

“Talk to your healthcare provider today to learn about your Blood Pressure, Cholesterol, Blood Sugar and BMI (Body Mass Index). Your heart depends on it”.3

Health Care Provider

What if I would like help with a healthy heart?

If you would like help with a healthy heart, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this. Together you can discuss your options and if required, agree on who may be the most appropriate health care provider to help you.

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics A-Z related to Healthy Heart?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Healthy Heart?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Listen To Your Heart: Women and Heart Disease – Tips for Living A Heart-Healthy Lifestyle. Last Updated 11 April 2024. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/education/heart-truth/listen-to-your-heart Accessed: 18 May 2024
  2. Listen To Your Heart: Women and Heart Disease – Tips for Living A Heart-Healthy Lifestyle. Last Updated 11 April 2024. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/education/heart-truth/listen-to-your-heart Accessed: 18 May 2024
  3. Know Your Numbers They Could Just Save Your Life. Go Red for Women https://www.goredforwomen.org/en/know-your-risk/know-your-numbers Accessed: 18 May 2024
Topic Last Updated: 24 May 2024 – Topic Last Reviewed: 18 May 2024