“Talk to your healthcare provider today to learn about your Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, Blood Sugar and BMI (Body Mass Index)”.1

Umbrella
What may the Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Cardiovascular Conditions
  • Cardiovascular Disease/s (CVD/CVDs)
  • Cardiovascular Disorders
  • Diseases/Disorders of the Heart and Blood Vessels
  • Diseases/Disorders of the Heart and Circulatory System
  • Heart Disease/s
  • Heart and Circulatory Disease
  • Stroke

Cardiovascular Disease

What is cardiovascular disease (CVD)?

DotS the definition of CVD may vary. The British Heart Foundation’s definition is:

“Cardiovascular disease (CVD), also called heart and circulatory disease, is an umbrella name for conditions that affect your heart or circulation. These include high blood pressure, stroke and vascular dementia”.2

Before Menopause

Before menopause do women have a lower risk of CVD than men?

The World Heart Federation (WHF) explain:

Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease“Gender: Your gender is significant: as a man you are at greater risk of heart disease than a pre-menopausal woman. But once past the menopause, a woman’s risk is similar to a man’s. Risk of stroke is similar for men and women”.3

The (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (JH) also note:

“Before menopause, women have a lower risk of heart disease than men, but as women age and their oestrogen levels fall after menopause, their risk of cardiovascular disease increases”.4

After Menopause

After menopause can women have an increased risk of CVD?

In Health After Menopause: Cardiovascular Disease the JH elaborate on:

“Blood pressure can increase after menopause, as can total cholesterol and LDL, or ‘bad cholesterol’. There can also be a decrease in HDL, or ‘good cholesterol’. Other blood fats such as triglycerides can also increase”.5

In Menopause FAQs: Your Health After Menopause – Q. Do I have to start worrying about heart disease? the North American Menopause Society (NAMS) explain:

“You do. Although many women think of heart disease as a man’s disease, the number one killer of women in North America is cardiovascular disease, that is, diseases of the heart and circulatory system. After age 55, more than half of all the deaths in women are caused by cardiovascular disease”.6

Breast Cancer

Is CVD a bigger killer of women than breast cancer?

In Resources for Women the WHF note:

“Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one killer of women, with over 2 million premature deaths every year. This represents one-third of all deaths, and CVD kills more women than cancer, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined”.7

Risk Factors

What are risk factors for CVD?

In Risk Factors: Cardiovascular Risk Factors the WHF elaborate on:

“There are many risk factors associated with coronary heart disease and stroke. Some risk factors, such as family history, cannot be modified, while other risk factors, like high blood pressure, can be modified with treatment.

You will not necessarily develop cardiovascular disease if you have a risk factor. But the more risk factors you have the greater the likelihood that you will, unless you take action to modify your risk factors and work to prevent them compromising your heart health.

  • Modifiable Risk Factors…
  • Non-Modifiable Risk Factors…
  • Other Non-Modifiable Risk Factors Include…”.8

Hot Flushes and Night Sweats

Is there an association between menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS) i.e., hot flushes and night sweats and CVD?

In Vasomotor Menopausal Symptoms and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Pooled Analysis of Six Prospective Studies – Conclusion the authors conclude:

“Severity rather than frequency of VMS (hot flushes and night sweats) was associated with increased risk of CVD. VMS with onset before or after menopause were also associated with increased risk of CVD”.9

PreventionMenopause and Cardiovascular Disease

Is CVD preventable?

Yes. In What Can I Do To Avoid A Heart Attack or Stroke? Q: What Can I Do To Avoid A Heart Attack or A Stroke? the WHO elaborate on:

“The good news, however, is that 80% of premature heart attacks and strokes are preventable. Healthy diet, regular physical activity, and not using tobacco products are the keys to prevention. Checking and controlling risk factors for heart disease and stroke such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and high blood sugar or diabetes is also very important”.10

In Women and CVD – Facts and Tips: How To Protect Your Heart – Protect Your Heart the WHF explain and elaborate on:

“Most of the major cardiovascular disease risks factors can be controlled. Here are a few tips on how to control those risks and protect your heart:

  • Get active…
  • Stop smoking and protect yourself from tobacco…
  • Maintain a healthy weight…
  • Know your numbers…
  • Eat healthily…
  • Know the warning signs
  • Carefully take your medication
  • Keep track of your achievements and progress…”.11

In Health After Menopause: Cardiovascular Disease the JH also note:

“Lifestyle changes might not be enough for some women with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, so medication for high blood pressure and/or cholesterol may be required”.12

Physical Activity

Is there an association between physical activity and CVD?

In Risk Factors: Cardiovascular Risk Factors – Modifiable Risk Factors: Physical Inactivity and Cardiovascular Disease the WHF note:

“Physical activity protects you by regulating your weight and improving your body’s use of insulin. Being active is beneficial for your blood pressure, blood lipid levels, blood glucose levels, blood clotting factors, the health of your blood vessels and inflammation, which is powerful promoter of cardiovascular disease”.13Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease

Go Red for Women

What is the American Heart Association’s Go Red for Women?

In Go Red for Women the American Heart Association (AHA) elaborate on:

“The American Heart Association’s signature women’s initiative, Go Red for Women, is a comprehensive platform designed to increase women’s heart health awareness and serve as a catalyst for change to improve the lives of women globally”.14

WISEWOMAN Program

What is the WISEWOMAN program?

Your Country may have a program similar to the (United States) WISEWOMAN Program. In WISEWOMAN Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): What Is the WISEWOMAN Program? the (United States) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) elaborate on:

“The WISEWOMAN (Well-Integrated Screening and Evaluation for WOMen Across the Nation) program helps women understand and reduce their risk for heart disease and stroke and provides services to help promote lasting heart-healthy lifestyles”.15

What services does the WISEWOMAN program fund?

The CDC explain:

“The WISEWOMAN program funds heart disease and stroke risk factor screenings that include blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and cholesterol screenings. Services are provided in local health departments, doctors’ offices, and community health centers”.16

Know Your Numbers

What numbers do women (and men) need to know?

In Know Your Numbers? They Could Just Save Your Life: Start By Knowing Your Numbers Go Red for Women elaborate on:

“Talk to your healthcare provider today to learn about your Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, Blood Sugar and BMI (Body Mass Index).

Your heart depends on it”.17

Health Care Provider

What if I think I have CVD or I have a family history of CVD?

If you think you have CVD or you have a family history of CVD, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this.

The NAMS encourage us to talk:

“Risk for this disease increases after menopause. Be sure to talk to your healthcare team about what your risks are and how you can reduce them”.18

In Hot Flushes and Night Sweats Linked To 70 Per Cent Increase In Cardiovascular Disease:

“This research helps to identify women who are at a higher risk for the development of cardiovascular events and who may need close monitoring in clinical practice,” Professor Mishra said”.19

On page seven in Prevention of Diseases After Menopause the authors note:

“Screening for CVD at regular intervals after menopause is extremely important. This includes measurement of blood pressure, lipids and perhaps inflammatory markers, BMI, and ascertainment of lifestyle factors such as activity level and smoking status. In addition, a family history of heart disease and stroke is important”.20

What is BMI?

BMI may be defined as Body Mass Index.

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics related to Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Menopause and Cardiovascular Disease?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources at:

Sources

  1. Know Your Numbers? They Could Just Save Your Life: Start By Knowing Your Numbers. Go Red for Women https://www.goredforwomen.org/en/know-your-risk/know-your-numbers Accessed: 29 June 2020
  2. Cardiovascular Heart Disease. Page Last Reviewed: October 2019. British Heart Foundation https://www.bhf.org.uk/informationsupport/conditions/cardiovascular-heart-disease Accessed: 29 June 2020
  3. Risk Factors: Cardiovascular Risk Factors – Other Common Non-Modifiable Risk Factors Include. 30 May 2017. World Heart Federation https://www.world-heart-federation.org/resources/risk-factors/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  4. Health After Menopause: Cardiovascular Disease. Last Updated: 14 January 2020 | Last Reviewed 17 December 2017. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/health-after-menopause/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  5. Health After Menopause: Cardiovascular Disease. Last Updated: 14 January 2020 | Last Reviewed: 17 December 2017. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/health-after-menopause/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  6. Menopause FAQs: Your Health After Menopause – Q. Do I have to start worrying about heart disease? North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopause-faqs-your-health-after-menopause Accessed: 29 June 2020
  7. Resources for Women. 22 May 2017. World Heart Federation https://www.world-heart-federation.org/resources/resources-for-women/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  8. Risk Factors: Cardiovascular Risk Factors. 30 May 2017. World Heart Federation https://www.world-heart-federation.org/resources/risk-factors/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  9. Zhu, D., Chung, H-F., Dobson, A. J., El Khoudary, S. E., Crawford, S., Mishra, G. D. eta al. Vasomotor Menopausal Symptoms and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Pooled Analysis of Six Prospective Studies – Conclusion. 22 June 2020. https://www.ajog.org/article/S0002-9378(20)30664-5/pdf Accessed: 05 July 2020
  10. What Can I Do To Avoid A Heart Attack or A Stroke? Q: What Can I Do To Avoid A Heart Attack or A Stroke? 13 September 2015. World Health Organization https://www.who.int/features/qa/27/en/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  11. Women and CVD – Facts and Tips: How To Protect Your Heart – Protect Your Heart. 22 May 2017. World Heart Federation https://www.world-heart-federation.org/resources/women-cvd-facts-tips/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  12. Health After Menopause: Cardiovascular Disease. Last Updated: 14 January 2020 | Last Reviewed: 17 December 2017. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/health-after-menopause/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  13. Risk Factors: Cardiovascular Risk Factors – Modifiable Risk Factors: Physical Inactivity and Cardiovascular Disease. 30 May 2017. World Heart Federation https://www.world-heart-federation.org/resources/risk-factors/ Accessed: 05 July 2020
  14. Go Red for Women. American Heart Association https://www.goredforwomen.org Accessed: 29 June 2020
  15. WISEWOMAN Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): What Is the WISEWOMAN Program? Page Last Reviewed: 02 October 2019. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/wisewoman/faqs.htm Accessed: 29 June 2020
  16. WISEWOMAN Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): What Services Does the WISEWOMAN Program Fund? Page Last Reviewed: 02 October 2019. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/wisewoman/faqs.htm Accessed: 29 June 2020
  17. Know Your Numbers? They Could Just Save Your Life: Start By Knowing Your Numbers. Go Red for Women https://www.goredforwomen.org/en/know-your-risk/know-your-numbers Accessed: 29 June 2020
  18. Menopause FAQs: Your Health After Menopause – Q. Do I have to start worrying about heart disease? North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopause-faqs-your-health-after-menopause Accessed: 29 June 2020
  19. Hot flushes and Night Sweats Linked To 70 Per Cent Increase In Cardiovascular Disease. 02 July 2020. Queensland University https://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2020/07/hot-flushes-and-night-sweats-linked-70-cent-increase-cardiovascular-disease Accessed: 05 July 2020
  20. Lobo, R. A., Davis, S. R., De Villiers, T. J., Gompel, A., Henderson, V. W., Hodis, H. N., Lumsden, M. A., Mack, W. J., Shapiro, S. and Baber, R. J. Prevention of Diseases After Menopause: Cardiovascular Diseases. 2014:7 https://www.imsociety.org/downloads/world_menopause_day_2014/white_paper/wmd_white_paper_english.pdf Accessed: 29 June 2020

Topic Last Updated: 15 July 2020 – Topic Last Reviewed: 29 June 2020
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