“A woman’s risk of breaking a hip due to osteoporosis is equal to her risk of breast, ovarian and uterine cancer combined”.1

Umbrella
What may the Osteoporosis and Fractures Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Breaking A Hip
  • Osteoporotic Fractures

Osteoporosis

Is there an association between osteoporosis and fractures?

Yes. The International Menopause Society note:

“Osteoporosis is a common disease which increases with age and leads to an increased risk of fractures. Approximately 70% of women have osteoporosis of the hip, lumbar spine or wrist by the age of 80. Other factors, such as low body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol, among others, may reduce bone density and strength and increase the risk of fracture”.2

Fractures

What is the association between osteoporosis and fractures?

The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) explain:

Osteoporosis and Fractures
“Around the world, 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men are at risk of an osteoporotic fracture. In fact, an osteoporotic fracture is estimated to occur every 3 seconds. The most common fractures associated with osteoporosis occur at the hip, spine and wrist. The likelihood of these fractures occurring, particularly at the hip and spine, increases with age in both women and men”.3

Falls

How common are falls?

In Fractures/Fall Prevention the (United States) National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) note:

“Each year about one-third of all people over age 65 will fall. Many of these falls result in broken bones”.4

Falls and Fractures

What is the association between falls and fractures?

The IOF quote the Source dated 2003 and 1991:

  • “Falls contribute to fractures – 90% of hip fractures result from falls. A third of people over age 65 fall annually, with approximately 10-15% of falls in the elderly resulting in fracture, and almost 60% of those who fell the previous year will fall again”.5

Risk of Falling

What increases the risk of falling?

In Avoiding Falls: Know Your Risk Factors the IOF identify:

  • “Visual impairment
  • Blackouts and impaired cognition
  • Impaired balance and muscle weakness
  • Kyphosis (also known Dowager’s Hump)
  • Slow walking speed
  • Use of medications that can cause dizziness and drowsiness
  • Multiple drug therapies”.6

Risk Comparison

What is the risk of breaking a hip due to osteoporosis, compared to the risk of breast or prostate cancer?

In Are You At Risk? [+ Risk Factors Video] the NOF also note:

“A woman’s risk of breaking a hip due to osteoporosis is equal to her risk of breast, ovarian and uterine cancer combined. And a man age 50 or older is more likely to break a bone due to osteoporosis than he is to get prostate cancer”.7

Prevention of FallsOsteoporosis and Fractures

What are some steps to prevent falls?

In Avoiding Falls the IOF explain:

“Six Steps To Prevent Falls:

  1. “Fall-proof your home by removing hazards, installing grab bars and using extra lighting
  2. Do regular, suitable weight-bearing and muscle strengthening exercises, alongside exercises to improve balance
  3. Keep your glasses clean and in good repair, be careful on stairs if wearing bi-focals, and wear sunglasses on bright days to reduce glare
  4. Wear comfortable shoes with good support, a broad heel and non-slip soles
  5. Maintain a healthy diet that includes fresh fruit, vegetables and calcium-rich foods
  6. Talk to your doctor if you feel dizzy, and ask about your medications. Prescription medications can contribute to falling, particularly if you take three or more”.8

Hormone Therapy

Can menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) lower the risk of fractures?

One of the points of consensus in the Revised Global Consensus Statement on Menopausal Hormone Therapy – endorsed by seven menopause-related organizations – published online 20 June 2016 is:

  • “MHT has been shown to significantly lower the risk of hip, vertebral and other osteoporosis-related fractures in postmenopausal women”.9

Health Care Provider

What if I think I am at risk for fractures?

If you think you are at risk for fractures, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this.

Health Topics A-Z

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Links

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Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted above?

You may find the Sources at:

Sources

  1. Are You At Risk? National Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.nof.org/prevention/general-facts/bone-basics/are-you-at-risk/ Accessed: 17 January 2020
  2. Maintaining Health and Preventing Disease After the Menopause: Reducing the Risks of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis Post Menopause. 2014:3. International Menopause Society https//www.imsociety.org/downloads/world_menopause_day_2014/booklets/ims_wmd_booklet_2014_english.pdf Accessed: 17 January 2020
  3. What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporotic Fractures. International Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.iofbonehealth.org/what-osteoporosis-0 Accessed: 17 January 2020
  4. Fractures/Fall Prevention. National Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.nof.org/patients/fracturesfall-prevention/ Accessed: 17 January 2020
  5. Facts and Statistics: Osteoporosis – Risk Factors. International Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.iofbonehealth.org/facts-statistics#category-18 Accessed: 17 January 2020
  6. Are You At Risk? National Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.nof.org/prevention/general-facts/bone-basics/are-you-at-risk/ Accessed: 17 January 2020
  7. Avoiding Falls: Know Your Risk Factors. International Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.iofbonehealth.org/avoiding-falls Accessed: 17 January 2020
  8. Avoiding Falls International Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.iofbonehealth.org/avoiding-falls Accessed: 17 January 2020
  9. De Villiers, T. J., Hall, J. E., Pinkerton, J. V., Pérez, S. C., Rees, M., Yang, C. and Pierroz, D. D. Revised Global Consensus Statement on Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Section A: Benefit/Risk Profile of MHT. Climacteric, 2016;19:4:313 https://www.imsociety.org/manage/images/pdf/ba6379e868044bec13015ac2b84f2753.pdf Accessed: 17 January 2020
Topic Last Updated: 17 January 2020 – Topic Last Reviewed: 17 January 2020
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