“Smoking, lack of exercise, alcohol and high caffeine intake
(5-6 cups of coffee or caffeinated soft drinks per day)
can increase the risk of osteoporosis”.1

Umbrella
What may the Osteoporosis Risk and Prevention Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Osteoporosis Prevention
  • Osteoporosis Risk
  • Osteoporosis Risk Factors

Women

Is there an association between women and the risk of developing osteoporosis?

In What Women Need To Know the (United States) Bone Health & Osteoporosis Foundation (BHOF) note:

“Being female puts you at risk of developing osteoporosis and broken bones. Here are some facts:

  • Of the estimated 10 million Americans with osteoporosis, about eight million or 80% are women
  • Approximately one in two women over age 50 will break a bone because of osteoporosis
  • A woman’s risk of breaking a hip is equal to her combined risk of breast, uterine and ovarian cancer”.2

Risk Factors

What factors that may increase a person’s risk for osteoporosis?

In Osteoporosis Overview: Causes of Osteoporosis the (United States National Institutes of Health) NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center elaborate on:

“Factors that may increase your risk for osteoporosis include:

  • Sex…
  • Age…
  • Body size…
  • Race…
  • Family history…
  • Changes to hormones…
  • Diet…
  • Other medical conditions…
  • Medications…
  • Lifestyle…”.3

In Are You At Risk? the BHOF explain:

“Uncontrollable Risk Factors

  • Being over age 50
  • Being female
  • Menopause
  • Family history of osteoporosis
  • Low body weight/being small and thin
  • Broken bones or height loss

Controllable Risk Factors

  • Not getting enough calcium and vitamin D
  • Not eating enough fruits and vegetables
  • Getting too much protein, sodium and caffeine
  • Having an inactive lifestyle
  • Smoking
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Losing weight”.4

The (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health also note:

“Smoking, lack of exercise, alcohol and high caffeine intake (5-6 cups of coffee or caffeinated soft drinks per day) can increase the risk of osteoporosis”.5

Menopause

Is there an association between menopause and the risk of developing osteoporosis?

In What Women Need To Know: Menopause: A Time for Action the BHOF elaborate on:

Osteoporosis Risk and Prevention width=

“When a woman reaches menopause, her estrogen levels drop and can lead to bone loss. For some women, this bone loss is rapid and severe.

Two major factors that affect your chance of getting osteoporosis are:

  • The amount of bone you have when you reach menopause
  • How fast you lose bone after you reach menopause. For some women, bone loss happens faster than for others. In fact, a woman can lose up to 20% of her bone density during the five – seven years following menopause. If you lose bone quickly, you have a greater chance of developing osteoporosis”.6

Prevention

What is the key strategy for preserving bone mass after menopause?

On page three in Maintaining Health and Preventing Disease After the Menopause: Reducing the Risks of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis Post Menopause the International Menopause Society elaborate on:

“Lifestyle and diet is the key strategy for preserving bone mass after menopause. Smoking and excessive alcohol use are toxic to bones and should be avoided. Moderate daily weight-bearing exercise strengthens bones and is recommended”.7

In Prevention and Healthy Living the BHOF elaborate on:

“What Can You Do To Protect Your Bones?

  • Get enough calcium and vitamin D and eat a well balanced diet
  • Engage in regular exercise
  • Eat foods that are good for bone health, such as fruits and vegetables
  • Avoid smoking and limit alcohol to 2-3 drinks per day”.8

Bone Exercise

What is the best exercise for your bones?

In Exercise for Your Bone Health: The Best Bone Building Exercises NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center note:

“Weight-bearing and resistance exercises are the best for your bones. Weight-bearing exercises force you to work against gravity. They include walking, hiking, jogging, climbing stairs, playing tennis, and dancing. Resistance exercises – such as lifting weights – can also strengthen bones. Other exercises such as swimming and bicycling can help build and maintain strong muscles and have excellent cardiovascular benefits, but they are not the best way to exercise your bones”.9

Hormone Therapy and Osteoporosis

Is HT effective for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis?

On page one in Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use: Potential Benefits, published July 2022, the NAMS note:

“Hormone therapy keeps your bones strong by preserving bone density and decreasing your risk of osteoporosis and fractures. If preserving bone density is your only concern, and you do not have bothersome hot flashes, other treatments may be recommended instead of HT”.10

On page two in the Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause, first published 10 June 2022, one of the recommendations is:

  • “In addition, HRT has been shown to have an effective role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are considered as first-line options for most patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis due to their broad spectrum of anti-fracture efficacy. HRT may be considered as an additional alternative option, particularly in younger postmenopausal women with menopausal symptoms who are at increased risk of fractures”.11

Hormone Therapy, POI and Early Menopause

Is HT effective for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and early menopause?

On page two in the Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause, first published 10 June 2022, one of the recommendations is:

  • “HRT is considered as first-line intervention for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and early menopause (40–45 years old)”.12

On page one in The North American Menopause Society Releases Its 2022 Hormone Therapy Position Statement, published 07 July 2022, the NAMS note:

  • “Women with primary ovarian insufficiency and premature or early menopause have higher risks of bone loss, heart disease, and cognitive or affective disorders associated with estrogen deficiency. It is recommended that hormone therapy can be used until at least the mean age of menopause unless there is a contraindication to its use”.13

Health Care Provider

What if I think I am at risk for osteoporosis?

If you think you are at risk for osteoporosis, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this.

In About Osteoporosis: Have Risk Factors? Talk To Your Doctor, Ask for Testing the International Osteoporosis Federation (IOF) note:

“To become aware of any potential risk factors, take the IOF Osteoporosis Risk Check.

If you are over the age of 50 and you have one or more risk factors you should discuss these with your doctor and ask for an assessment of your bone health status. Lifestyle changes may be recommended and, for those at high risk, medication may be prescribed for optimal protection against fractures”.14

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics related to Osteoporosis Risk and Prevention?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

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Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Health After Menopause: Bone Health & Osteoporosis. Last Updated: 25 March 2021 | Last Reviewed: 17 December 2017. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/health-after-menopause/ Accessed: 16 August 2022
  2. What Women Need To Know. Bone Health & Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.nof.org/preventing-fractures/general-facts/what-women-need-to-know/ Accessed: 16 August 2022
  3. Osteoporosis Overview: Causes of Osteoporosis. Last Reviewed: October 2019. NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center https://www.bones.nih.gov/health-info/bone/osteoporosis/overview Accessed: 16 August 2022
  4. Are You At Risk? National Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.nof.org/prevention/general-facts/bone-basics/are-you-at-risk/ Accessed: 16 August 2022
  5. Health After Menopause: Bone Health & Osteoporosis. Last Updated: 25 March 2021 | Last Reviewed: 17 December 2017. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/health-after-menopause/ Accessed: 16 August 2022
  6. What Women Need To Know: Menopause: A Time for Action. Bone Health & Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.nof.org/prevention/general-facts/what-women-need-to-know/ Accessed: 16 August 2022
  7. Maintaining Health and Preventing Disease After the Menopause: Reducing the Risks of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis Post Menopause. 2014:3. International Menopause Society https://www.imsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/wmd-2014-leaflet-english.pdf Accessed: 16 August 2022
  8. Prevention and Healthy Living. Last Reviewed 08/09/2018. Bone Health & Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.nof.org/preventing-fractures/prevention/prevention-and-healthy-living/ Accessed: 16 August 2022
  9. Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use: Potential Benefits. July 2022:1 https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/professional/menonote-deciding-about-ht-2022.pdf Accessed: 16 August 2022
  10. Exercise for Your Bone Health: The Best Bone Building Exercise. Last Reviewed: October 2018. NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center https://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Bone_Health/Exercise/default.asp Accessed: 16 August 2022
  11. Hamoda et al. Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause. First published 10 June 2022:2 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/20533691221104879 Accessed: 16 August 2022
  12. Hamoda et al. Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause. First published 10 June 2022:2 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/20533691221104879 Accessed: 16 August 2022
  13. The North American Menopause Society Releases Its 2022 Hormone Therapy Position Statement. 07 July 2022:1 North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/press-release/ht-position-statement-release.pdf Accessed: 16 August 2022
  14. About Osteoporosis: Have Risk Factors? Talk To Your Doctor, Ask for Testing. International Osteoporosis Federation http://worldosteoporosisday.org/about-osteoporosis Accessed: 16 August 2022
Topic Last Updated: 08 October 2022 – Topic Last Reviewed: 16 August 2022

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