“It’s important to have regular bone health checks.
Your doctor might ask about your medical history, check
risk factors for osteoporosis and do a bone density test”.1

Umbrella
What may the Osteoporosis Risk and Prevention Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Osteoporosis Prevention
  • Osteoporosis Risk
  • Osteoporosis Risk Factors

Women

Is there an association between women and the risk of developing osteoporosis?

In What Women Need To Know the (United States) Bone Health & Osteoporosis Foundation (BHOF) note:

“Being female puts you at risk of developing osteoporosis and broken bones. Here are some facts:

  • Of the estimated 10 million Americans with osteoporosis, about eight million or 80% are women
  • Approximately one in two women over age 50 will break a bone because of osteoporosis
  • A woman’s risk of breaking a hip is equal to her combined risk of breast, uterine and ovarian cancer”.2

Risk Factors

What factors may increase our risk for osteoporosis?

In Osteoporosis Basics: What Causes Osteoporosis the (United States) National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) elaborate on:

“Factors that may increase your risk for osteoporosis include:

  • Sex…
  • Age…
  • Body size…
  • Race…
  • Family history…
  • Changes to hormones…
  • Diet…
  • Other medical conditions…
  • Medications…
  • Lifestyle…”.3

In Are You At Risk? the BHOF explain:

“Uncontrollable Risk Factors

  • Being over age 50
  • Being female
  • Menopause
  • Family history of osteoporosis
  • Low body weight/being small and thin
  • Broken bones or height loss

Controllable Risk Factors

  • Not getting enough calcium and vitamin D
  • Not eating enough fruits and vegetables
  • Getting too much protein, sodium and caffeine
  • Having an inactive lifestyle
  • Smoking
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Losing weight”.4

Menopause

Is there an association between menopause and our risk of developing osteoporosis?

In What Women Need To Know: Menopause: A Time for Action the BHOF elaborate on:

“When a woman reaches menopause, her estrogen levels drop and can lead to bone loss. For some women, this bone loss is rapid and severe.Two major factors that affect your chance of getting osteoporosis are:

  • The amount of bone you have when you reach menopause
  • How fast you lose bone after you reach menopause. For some women, bone loss happens faster than for others. In fact, a woman can lose up to 20% of her bone density during the five – seven years following menopause. If you lose bone quickly, you have a greater chance of developing osteoporosis”.5

Osteoporosis Risk and Prevention

Reduce Risk

How can we reduce our risk of osteoporosis?

In Looking After Yourself: Healthy Bones the (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (JH) explain:

“You can reduce your risk of osteoporosis by eating the right amount of calcium per day. Women over 50, or women who have reached menopause before 50, should eat 1300mg of calcium per day, which is equal to 3 to 4 serves of dairy per day. Other good sources of calcium include:

  • Canned fish with bones (e.g. sardines)
  • Almonds
  • Tofu
  • Leafy green vegetables
  • Legumes (e.g. chickpeas or kidney beans).

You can also:

  • Get the right amount of vitamin D through sunlight or supplements
  • Do regular weight-bearing and resistance exercise
  • Not drink coffee
  • Not smoke”.6

Exercise for Bone Health

What are some exercises for bone health?

In Exercise for Your Bone Health: Which Exercises Are Best for Keeping Bones Healthy? the NIAMS note:

“If you have low bone density (a condition sometimes called osteopenia), osteoporosis, or other physical limitations, talk to a health care provider before starting an exercise program. They can help you choose types of physical activity that are safe for you and good for your bone health.

A combination of these types of exercise is best for building and maintaining healthy bones and preventing falls and fractures:

  • Weight-bearing exercises…
  • Resistance training exercises (weight lifting)…
  • Balance training…”.7

Hormone Therapy and Osteoporosis

Is HT effective for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis?

On page one in Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use: Potential Benefits, published July 2022, the NAMS note:

“Hormone therapy keeps your bones strong by preserving bone density and decreasing your risk of osteoporosis and fractures. If preserving bone density is your only concern, and you do not have bothersome hot flashes, other treatments may be recommended instead of HT”.8

On page two in the Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause, first published online 10 June 2022, one of the recommendations is:

  • “In addition, HRT has been shown to have an effective role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are considered as first-line options for most patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis due to their broad spectrum of anti-fracture efficacy. HRT may be considered as an additional alternative option, particularly in younger postmenopausal women with menopausal symptoms who are at increased risk of fractures”.9

Hormone Therapy, POI and Early Menopause

Is HT effective for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and early menopause?

On page two in the Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause, first published online 10 June 2022, one of the recommendations is:

  • “HRT is considered as first-line intervention for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and early menopause (40–45 years old)”.10

On page one in The North American Menopause Society Releases Its 2022 Hormone Therapy Position Statement, published 07 July 2022, the NAMS note:

  • “Women with primary ovarian insufficiency and premature or early menopause have higher risks of bone loss, heart disease, and cognitive or affective disorders associated with estrogen deficiency. It is recommended that hormone therapy can be used until at least the mean age of menopause unless there is a contraindication to its use”.11

Health Care Provider

What if I think I am at risk for osteoporosis?

The JH explain:

“It’s important to have regular bone health checks. Your doctor might ask about your medical history, check risk factors for osteoporosis and do a bone density test”.12

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics A-Z related to Osteoporosis Risk and Prevention?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

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Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. What Is Menopause? Perimenopause, Menopause and Postmenopause: What Changes After Menopause? – Bone Health and Osteoporosis. Last Updated: 18 January 2024 | Last Reviewed: 19 August 2022. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/health-after-menopause/ Accessed: 16 March 2024
  2. What Women Need To Know. Bone Health & Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.nof.org/preventing-fractures/general-facts/what-women-need-to-know/ Accessed: 16 March 2024
  3. Osteoporosis Basics: Causes of Osteoporosis. Last Reviewed: December 2022. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/osteoporosis/basics/symptoms-causes Accessed: 16 March 2024
  4. Are You At Risk? National Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.nof.org/prevention/general-facts/bone-basics/are-you-at-risk/ Accessed: 16 March 2024
  5. What Women Need To Know: Menopause: A Time for Action. Bone Health & Osteoporosis Foundation https://www.bonehealthandosteoporosis.org/preventing-fractures/general-facts/what-women-need-to-know/ Accessed: 16 March 2024
  6. Looking After Yourself: Healthy Bones Last Updated: 19 January 2024 | Last Reviewed: 19 August 2022. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/looking-after-yourself#healthy-bones Accessed: 16 March 2024
  7. Exercise for Your Bone Health: Which Exercises Are Best for Keeping Bones Healthy? Last Reviewed: May 2023. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/exercise-your-bone-health Accessed: 16 March 2023
  8. Deciding About Hormone Therapy Use: Potential Benefits. July 2022:1 https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/professional/menonote-deciding-about-ht-2022.pdf Accessed: 16 March 2024
  9. Hamoda, H., Mukherjee, A., Morris, E., Baldeweg, S. E., Jayasena, C. N., Briggs, P., Moger, S. Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause. First Published Online 10 June 2022:2 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/20533691221104879 Accessed: 16 March 2024
  10. Hamoda, H., Mukherjee, A., Morris, E., Baldeweg, S. E., Jayasena, C. N., Briggs, P., Moger, S. Joint Position Statement By the British Menopause Society, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and Society for Endocrinology on Best Practice Recommendations for the Care of Women Experiencing the Menopause. First Published Online 10 June 2022:2 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/20533691221104879 Accessed: 16 March 2024
  11. The North American Menopause Society Releases Its 2022 Hormone Therapy Position Statement. 07 July 2022:1 North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/press-release/ht-position-statement-release.pdf Accessed: 16 March 2024
  12. What Is Menopause? Perimenopause, Menopause and Postmenopause: What Changes After Menopause? – Bone Health and Osteoporosis. Last Updated: 18 January 2024 | Last Reviewed: 19 August 2022. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/health-after-menopause/ Accessed: 16 March 2024
Topic Last Updated: 07 May 2024 – Topic Last Reviewed: 16 March 2024

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