“Managing diabetes whilst going through menopause
can feel like a twin challenge for most women due to
the combined effects that each condition can have…”.1

Umbrella
What may the Diabetes Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Adult-Onset Diabetes
  • Diabetes
  • Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
  • Diabetes Type 1
  • Diabetes Type 2
  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes

Definition

What is diabetes?

DotS the definition of diabetes may vary. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) definition is:

“Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar”.2

The International Diabetes Federation’s (IDF) definition is:

“Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces”.3

Insulin

What is insulin?

DotS the definition of insulin may vary. The IDF’s definition is:

“Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas, that acts like a key to let glucose from the food we eat pass from the blood stream into the cells in the body to produce energy. All carbohydrate foods are broken down into glucose in the blood. Insulin helps glucose get into the cells.

Not being able to produce insulin or use it effectively leads to raised glucose levels in the blood (known as hyperglycaemia). Over the long-term high glucose levels are associated with damage to the body and failure of various organs and tissues”.4

Types

What are two common types of diabetes?

Two common types of diabetes are:

Two Common Types of Diabetes

  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

What is type 1 diabetes?

DotS the definition of type 1 diabetes may vary. In Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes the WHO’s definition is:

“Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin”.5

In About Diabetes: What Is Diabetes – Types of Diabetes the IDF’s definition is:

  • Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but occurs most frequently in children and adolescents. When you have type 1 diabetes, your body produces very little or no insulin, which means that you need daily insulin injections to maintain blood glucose levels under control”.6

How common is type 1 diabetes?

In What Is Diabetes? How Common Is Diabetes? the (United States) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease’s (NIDDK) note:

“As of 2015, 30.3 million people in the United States, or 9.4 percent of the population, had diabetes. More than 1 in 4 of them didn’t know they had the disease. Diabetes affects 1 in 4 people over the age of 65. About 90-95 percent of cases in adults are type 2 diabetes”.7

Type 2 Diabetes

What is type 2 diabetes?

DotS the definition of type 2 diabetes may vary. In Diabetes: Type 2 Diabetes the WHO’s definition is:

“Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent, or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. More than 95% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. This type of diabetes is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity”.8

In About Diabetes: What Is Diabetes – Types of Diabetes the IDF’s definition is:

  • Type 2 diabetes is more common in adults and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes cases. When you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make good use of the insulin that it produces. The cornerstone of type 2 diabetes treatment is healthy lifestyle, including increased physical activity and healthy diet. However, over time most people with type 2 diabetes will require oral drugs and/or insulin to keep their blood glucose levels under control”.9

What causes type 2 diabetes?

In Type 2 Diabetes: What Causes Type 2 Diabetes? Diabetes Australia elaborate on:

“Diabetes runs in the family. If you have a family member with diabetes, you have a genetic disposition to the condition.

While people may have a strong genetic disposition towards type 2 diabetes, the risk is greatly increased if people display a number of modifiable lifestyle factors including high blood pressure, overweight or obesity, insufficient physical activity, poor diet and the classic ‘apple shape’ body where extra weight is carried around the waist”.10

Women

Is there an association between women and diabetes?

In Diabetes Hits Women Hard At Menopause: Beat It Back the North American Menopause Society (NAMS) elaborate on:

“Diabetes hits women hard, especially at midlife. In the United States, it’s the number 6 killer of women ages 45 to 54 and the number 4 killer of women ages 55 to 64. What’s more, diabetes increases your risk of heart disease, stroke, and many other serious conditions, including blindness, kidney disease, and nerve disease”.11

Menopause

Is there an association between menopause and diabetes?

In Menopause and Diabetes the (United Kingdom) Diabetes.co.uk note:

“Managing diabetes whilst going through menopause can feel like a twin challenge for most women due to the combined effects that each condition can have on the body.

The best way to remain in control is by knowing what to expect so that you can prepare yourself for the unique challenges that may lie ahead”.12

In Consumer Health: Diabetes and Menopause: Diabetes and Menopause: What To Expect the (United States) Mayo Clinic elaborate on:

“The hormones estrogen and progesterone affect how your cells respond to insulin. After menopause, changes in your hormone levels can trigger fluctuations in your blood sugar level. You may notice that your blood sugar level changes more than before, and it goes up and down. If your blood sugar gets out of control, you have a higher risk of diabetes complications”.13

In Consumer Health: Diabetes and Menopause: Diabetes and Menopause: What To Expect the Mayo Clinic also note:

Diabetes
“After menopause, hot flashes and night sweats can keep you up at night. In turn, the sleep deprivation can make it tougher to manage your blood sugar level”.14

Heart Disease

Is there an association between heart disease and diabetes?

In Menopause and Diabetes: How Can I Better Manage Menopause and Diabetes? Get Assessed for Heart Disease Risk Diabetes.co.uk note:

“Menopause triggers metabolic changes that can cause your weight to increase. For women with diabetes, weight gain can elevate their risk of heart disease even more, as well as complicating management of blood sugar levels.

As your doctor about regular blood pressure and cholesterol screening as both health factors are important for controlling diabetes and heart disease risk, but can be affected by menopause”.15

Prevention

How may type 2 diabetes be prevented?

In Care & Prevention: Type 2 Diabetes Prevention the IDF elaborate on:

“Randomised controlled trials from different parts of the world, including Finland, USA, China and India, have established the that lifestyle modification with physical activity and/or healthy diet can delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes”.16

In Prevention: Type 2 Diabetes Australia elaborate on:

“Evidence, including large-scale randomised control trials, shows type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed in up to 58 per cent of cases by maintaining a healthy weight, being physically active and following a healthy eating plan.

People at risk of type 2 diabetes can delay and even prevent the condition by:

  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Regular physical activity
  • Making healthy food choices
  • Managing blood pressure
  • Managing cholesterol levels
  • Not smoking”.17

Health Care Provider

What if I think I have diabetes?

If you think you have diabetes, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this.

In Preventing and Treating Diabetes the American Heart Association explain:

“Diabetes can be successfully managed. Work with your health care team to set personal goals. And be sure to monitor your critical health numbers, including your:

  • Blood sugar level
  • Weight
  • Blood cholesterol level
  • Blood pressure

Taking these steps may also help prevent serious complications that can arise from diabetes”.18

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics related to Diabetes?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Diabetes?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Diabetes and Menopause. Written: 15 January 2019. Last Reviewed: 10 June 2022. Diabetes.co.uk https://www.diabetes.co.uk/menopause-and-diabetes.html Accessed: 14 November 2022
  2. Diabetes: Overview. 16 September 2022. World Health Organization https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes Accessed: 14 November 2022
  3. About Diabetes: What Is Diabetes. Last Update: 07 July 2022. International Diabetes Federation https://www.idf.org/aboutdiabetes/what-is-diabetes.html Accessed: 14 November 2022
  4. About Diabetes: What Is Diabetes. Last Update: 07 July 2022. International Diabetes Federation https://www.idf.org/aboutdiabetes/what-is-diabetes.html Accessed: 14 November 2022
  5. Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes. 16 September 2022. World Health Organization https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes Accessed: 14 November 2022
  6. About Diabetes: What Is Diabetes – Types of Diabetes. Last Update 07 July 2022. International Diabetes Federation https://www.idf.org/aboutdiabetes/what-is-diabetes.html Accessed: 14 November 2022
  7. What Is Diabetes? How Common Is Diabetes? December 2016. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes Accessed: 14 November 2022
  8. Diabetes: Type 2 Diabetes. 16 September 2022. World Health Organization https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes Accessed: 14 November 2022
  9. About Diabetes: What Is Diabetes – Types of Diabetes. Last Update 07 July 2022. International Diabetes Federation https://www.idf.org/aboutdiabetes/what-is-diabetes.html Accessed: 14 November 2022
  10. Type 2 Diabetes. What Causes Type 2 Diabetes? Diabetes Australia https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/about-diabetes/type-2-diabetes/ Accessed: 14 November 2022
  11. Diabetes Hits Women Hard At Menopause: Beat It Back. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopauseflashes/bone-health-and-heart-health/diabetes-hits-women-hard-at-menopause-beat-it-back Accessed: 14 November 2022
  12. Diabetes and Menopause. Written: 15 January 2019. Last Reviewed: 10 June 2022. Diabetes.co.uk https://www.diabetes.co.uk/menopause-and-diabetes.html Accessed: 14 November 2022
  13. Consumer Health: Diabetes and Menopause. 16 November 2021. Mayo Clinic https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/consumer-health-diabetes-and-menopause/ Accessed: 14 November 2022
  14. Consumer Health: Diabetes and Menopause. 16 November 2021. Mayo Clinic https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/consumer-health-diabetes-and-menopause/ Accessed: 14 November 2022
  15. Consumer Health: Diabetes and Menopause: Diabetes and Menopause: What To Expect. Written: 15 January 2019. Last Reviewed: 07 January 2022. Diabetes.co.uk https://www.diabetes.co.uk/menopause-and-diabetes.html Accessed: 14 November 2022
  16. Care & Prevention: Type 2 Diabetes Prevention. Last Update 03/02/2020. International Diabetes Federation https://www.idf.org/our-activities/care-prevention/prevention.html Accessed: 14 November 2022
  17. Prevention: Type 2. Diabetes Australia https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/about-diabetes/prevention/ Accessed: 14 November 2022
  18. Preventing and Treating Diabetes. Last Reviewed: 05 May 2021. American Heart Association https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/diabetes/prevention–treatment-of-diabetes Accessed: 14 November 2022
Topic Last Updated: 26 November 2022 – Topic Last Reviewed: 14 November 2022

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