“Diabetes hits women hard, especially at midlife. In the United States, it’s the number 6 killer of women ages 45 to 54 and the number 4 killer of women ages 55 to 64”.1

Umbrella
What may the Diabetes Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Adult-Onset Diabetes
  • Diabetes
  • Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
  • Diabetes Type 1
  • Diabetes Type 2
  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes

What is diabetes?

DotS the definition of diabetes may vary. The World Health Organization’s definition is:

“Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar”.2

The International Diabetes Federation’s (IDF) definition is:

“Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas is no longer able to make insulin, or when the body cannot make good use of the insulin it produces”.3

Insulin

What is insulin?

DotS the definition of insulin may vary. The IDF’s definition is:

“Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas, that acts like a key to let glucose from the food we eat pass from the blood stream into the cells in the body to produce energy. All carbohydrate foods are broken down into glucose in the blood. Insulin helps glucose get into the cells. Not being able to produce insulin or use it effectively leads to raised glucose levels in the blood (known as hyperglycaemia). Over the long-term high glucose levels are associated with damage to the body and failure of various organs and tissues”.4

Types

What are two common types of diabetes?

Two common types of diabetes are:

Two Common Types of Diabetes

  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

What is type 1 diabetes?

DotS the definition of type 1 diabetes may vary. In What Is Type 1 Diabetes? the (United Kingdom) Diabetes UK’s definition is:

“Type 1 diabetes is a serious, lifelong condition where your blood glucose level is too high because your body can’t make a hormone called insulin”.5

In What Is Diabetes? What Are the Different Types of Diabetes? Type 1 Diabetes the (United States) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease’s (NIDDK) definition is:

“If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin”.6

How common is type 1 diabetes?

In What Is Diabetes? How Common Is Diabetes? the NIDDK explain:

“As of 2015, 30.3 million people in the United States, or 9.4 percent of the population, had diabetes. More than 1 in 4 of them didn’t know they had the disease. Diabetes affects 1 in 4 people over the age of 65. About 90-95 percent of cases in adults are type 2 diabetes”.7

Type 2 Diabetes

What is type 2 diabetes?

DotS the definition of type 2 diabetes may vary. In Diabetes: What Is Diabetes? Type 2 Diabetes the WHO’s definition is:

“Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent, or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. The majority of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. This type of diabetes is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity”.8

In What Is Type 2 Diabetes? the Diabetes UK’s definition is:

“Type 2 diabetes is a serious condition where the insulin your pancreas makes can’t work properly, or your pancreas can’t make enough insulin”.9

How common is type 2 diabetes?

In About Diabetes: What Is Diabetes – Types of Diabetes the IDF explain:

  • “Type 2 diabetes is more common in adults and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes cases”.10

What causes type 2 diabetes?

In Type 2 Diabetes: What Causes Type 2 Diabetes? Diabetes Australia elaborate on:

Diabetes runs in the family. If you have a family member with diabetes, you have a genetic disposition to the condition. DiabetesWhile people may have a strong genetic disposition towards type 2 diabetes, the risk is greatly increased if people display a number of modifiable lifestyle factors including high blood pressure, overweight or obesity, insufficient physical activity, poor diet and the classic ‘apple shape’ body where extra weight is carried around the waist”.11

Women

Is there an association between women and diabetes?

In Diabetes Hits Women Hard At Menopause: Beat It Back the North American Menopause Society (NAMS) elaborate on:

“Diabetes hits women hard, especially at midlife. In the United States, it’s the number 6 killer of women ages 45 to 54 and the number 4 killer of women ages 55 to 64. What’s more, diabetes increases your risk of heart disease, stroke, and many other serious conditions, including blindness, kidney disease, and nerve disease”.12

Menopause

Is there an association between menopause and diabetes?

In Diabetes Hits Women Hard At Menopause: Beat It Back the NAMS also answer the question:

Diabetes“Does menopause increase diabetes risk? That hasn’t been an easy question for researchers to answer. It’s hard to separate the effects of menopause from the effects of age and weight. But it does look like hormones do have something to do with it. If you are a woman over age 50, you’re especially vulnerable, and women pay a heavy price for the disease. They lose more years of life than men with diabetes do. In addition, the death rate for women with diabetes has risen dramatically since the 1970s, while it has not for men with the disease”.13

In Menopause and Diabetes Diabetes.co.uk (United Kingdom) note:

“Managing diabetes whilst going through menopause can feel like a twin challenge for most women due to the combined effects that each condition can have on the body. The best way to remain in control is by knowing what to expect so that you can prepare yourself for the unique challenges that may lie ahead”.14

In Diabetes and Menopause: A Twin Challenge – Diabetes and Menopause: What To Expect the (United States) Mayo Clinic explain:

“Diabetes and menopause may team up for varied effects on your body, including:

  • Changes in blood sugar level….
  • Weight gain…
  • Infections…
  • Sleep problems…
  • Sexual problems”.15

In Diabetes and Menopause: A Twin Challenge – Diabetes and Menopause: What You Can Do the Mayo Clinic also elaborate on:

“Menopause can wreak havoc on your diabetes control. But there’s plenty you can do to better manage diabetes and menopause.

  • Make healthy lifestyle choices….
  • Measure your blood sugar frequently…
  • Ask your doctor about adjusting your diabetes medications…
  • Ask your doctor about cholesterol-lowering medications…
  • Seek help for menopausal symptoms…”.16

Heart Disease

Is there an association between heart disease and diabetes?

In Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases explain:

“Having diabetes means that you are more likely to develop heart disease and have a greater chance of a heart attack or a stroke. People with diabetes are also more likely to have certain conditions, or risk factors, that increase the chances of having heart disease or stroke, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol”.17

Prevention

How may type 2 diabetes be prevented?

In Care & Prevention: Type 2 Diabetes Prevention the IDF elaborate on:

“Randomised controlled trials from different parts of the world, including Finland, USA, China and India, have established the that lifestyle modification with physical activity and/or healthy diet can delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes”.18

In Prevention: Type 2 Diabetes Australia elaborate on:

“Evidence, including large-scale randomised control trials, shows type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed in up to 58 per cent of cases by maintaining a healthy weight, being physically active and following a healthy eating plan. People at risk of type 2 diabetes can delay and even prevent the condition by:

  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Regular physical activity
  • Making healthy food choices
  • Managing blood pressure
  • Managing cholesterol levels
  • Not smoking”.19

Health Care Provider

What if I think I have diabetes?

If you think you have diabetes, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this.

In Preventing and Treating Diabetes the American Heart Association explain:

“Diabetes can be successfully managed. Work with your health care team to set personal goals. And be sure to monitor your critical health numbers, including your:

  • Blood sugar level
  • Weight
  • Blood cholesterol level
  • Blood pressure
Taking these steps may also help prevent serious complications that can arise from diabetes”.20

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics related to Diabetes?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Diabetes?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Diabetes Hits Women Hard At Menopause: Beat It Back. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopauseflashes/bone-health-and-heart-health/diabetes-hits-women-hard-at-menopause-beat-it-back Accessed: 24 May 2020
  2. Diabetes: What Is Diabetes? 15 May 2020. World Health Organization https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes Accessed: 24 May 2020
  3. About Diabetes: What Is Diabetes. International Diabetes Federation https://www.idf.org/aboutdiabetes/what-is-diabetes.html Accessed: 24 May 2020
  4. About Diabetes: What Is Diabetes. International Diabetes Federation https://www.idf.org/aboutdiabetes/what-is-diabetes.html Accessed: 24 May 2020
  5. What Is Type 1 Diabetes? Diabetes UK https://www.diabetes.org.uk/Guide-to-diabetes/What-is-diabetes/What-is-Type-1-Diabetes/ Accessed: 24 May 2020
  6. What Is Diabetes? What Are the Different Types of Diabetes? Type 1 Diabetes. November 2016. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes Accessed: 24 May 2020
  7. What Is Diabetes? How Common Is Diabetes? November 2016. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes Accessed: 24 May 2020
  8. Diabetes: What Is Diabetes? Type 2 Diabetes. 15 May 2020. World Health Organization https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes Accessed: 24 May 2020
  9. What Is Type 2 Diabetes? Diabetes UK https://www.diabetes.org.uk/Guide-to-diabetes/What-is-diabetes/What-is-Type-2-Diabetes/ Accessed: 24 May 2020
  10. About Diabetes: What Is Diabetes – Types of Diabetes. International Diabetes Federation https://www.idf.org/aboutdiabetes/what-is-diabetes.html Accessed: 24 May 2020
  11. Type 2 Diabetes. What Causes Type 2 Diabetes? Diabetes Australia https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/type-2-diabetes Accessed: 24 May 2020
  12. Diabetes Hits Women Hard At Menopause: Beat It Back. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopauseflashes/bone-health-and-heart-health/diabetes-hits-women-hard-at-menopause-beat-it-back Accessed: 24 May 2020
  13. Diabetes Hits Women Hard At Menopause: Beat It Back. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopauseflashes/bone-health-and-heart-health/diabetes-hits-women-hard-at-menopause-beat-it-back Accessed: 24 May 2020
  14. Diabetes and Menopause. Posted on 15 January 2019. Diabetes.co.uk https://www.diabetes.co.uk/menopause-and-diabetes.html Accessed: 24 May 2020
  15. Diabetes and Menopause: A Twin Challenge – Diabetes and Menopause: What To Expect. 15 January 2020. Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/in-depth/diabetes/art-20044312 Accessed: 24 May 2020
  16. Diabetes and Menopause: A Twin Challenge – Diabetes and Menopause: What You Can Do. 15 January 2020. Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/in-depth/diabetes/art-20044312 Accessed: 24 May 2020
  17. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke. February 2017. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/preventing-problems/heart-disease-stroke Accessed: 24 May 2020
  18. Care & Prevention: Type 2 Diabetes Prevention. International Diabetes Federation https://www.idf.org/our-activities/care-prevention/prevention.html Accessed: 24 May 2020
  19. Prevention: Type 2. Diabetes Australia https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/prevention Accessed: 24 May 2020
  20. Preventing and Treating Diabetes. Last Reviewed 12 March 2020. American Heart Association https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/diabetes/prevention–treatment-of-diabetes Accessed: 24 May 2020
Topic Last Updated: 07 August 2020 – Topic Last Reviewed: 24 May 2020
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