“The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI)
is a long-term national health study funded by the
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, or NHLBI”.1

Date

What can it be important to be clear about with hormone therapy (HT) information?

It can be important to be clear about the date of all information including the date of HT information, because this information may have been updated.

Symptoms or Chronic Conditions

What can it also be important to be clear about with HT information?

It can also be important to be clear about whether HT information is about the use of HT for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats and vaginal dryness; or for the prevention of chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancers, and osteoporotic fractures.

Women’s Health Initiative

What is the (United States) Women’s Health Initiative (WHI)?

In About WHI the WHI elaborate on:

“The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) is a long-term national health study funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, or NHLBI”.2

Goal

What is the goal of the WHI?

In Women’s Health Initiative (WHI): What Is the Goal of the WHI? the (United States) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) explain:

“The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), is a long-term national health study that focuses on strategies for preventing heart disease, breast and colorectal cancer, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. These chronic diseases are the major causes of death, disability, and frailty in older women of all races and socioeconomic backgrounds”.3

Original WHI Study Dates

When was the original WHI study?

In About WHI the WHI note:

“The original WHI study began in the early 1990s and concluded in 2005”.4

Original WHI Study

In the original WHI study, what were the three parts?

In Women’s Health Initiative (WHI): What Is the Goal of the WHI? the NHLBI explain:

“The original WHI study had three parts—a clinical trial, an observational study, and a community prevention study—and completed data collection in 2005”.5

Expectations

What did the WHI’s researchers expect to find in their two studies in the hormone trial?

On page one in the NAMS Journal Menopause Reflects on the WHI Ten Years Later the North American Menopause Society explain:

“Researchers expected to find that hormones prevented chronic conditions of aging in women, including heart disease. Instead, they found that hormones produced a mix of risks and benefits”.6

Heart Disease

What did the WHI find about hormone replacement therapy and heart disease?

In Women’s Health Initiative (WHI): At A Glance the NHLBI note:


Women’s Health Initiative

  • “The WHI found that hormone replacement therapy did not prevent heart disease in postmenopausal women as once thought”.7

Hormone Replacement Therapy

What did the WHI’s first results for hormone therapy in 2002 show?

In The Controversial History of Hormone Replacement Therapy: Abstract the authors elaborate on:

“After the announcement of the first results of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, which showed that HRT had more detrimental than beneficial effects, HRT use dropped. The negative results of the study received wide publicity, creating panic among some users and new guidance for doctors on prescribing HRT. The clear message from the media was that HRT had more risks than benefits for all women. In the following years, a reanalysis of the WHI trial was performed, and new studies showed that the use of HRT in younger women or in early postmenopausal women had a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, reducing coronary disease and all-cause mortality. Notwithstanding this, the public opinion on HRT has not changed yet, leading to important negative consequences for women’s health and quality of life”.8

Extension Studies

What are the WHI’s extension studies?

In About WHI the WHI explain:

“Since 2005, the WHI has continued as Extension Studies, which are annual collections of health updates and outcomes in active participants. The second Extension Study enrolled 93,500 women in 2010 and follow-up of these women continues annually”.9

Extension Studies Main Areas of Research

What are the extension studies main areas of research?

In About WHI the WHI elaborate on:

“As with the original WHI study, the main areas of research are cardiovascular disease, cancers, and osteoporotic fractures. While WHI continues to focus on strategies to prevent the major causes of death, disability, and frailty in older women, the breadth and richness of the WHI data allow for the exploration and investigation of many more research questions on women’s health and aging”.10

01 May 2024 Update – Chronic Disease Prevention

What do the authors conclude about the prevention of cardiovascular disease or other chronic diseases in The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trials and Clinical Practice, published 01 May 2024?

In The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trials and Clinical Practice: Abstract – Conclusions and Relevance the authors conclude:

“For postmenopausal women, the WHI randomized clinical trials do not support menopausal hormone therapy to prevent cardiovascular disease or other chronic diseases”.11

01 May 2024 Update – Vasomotor Symptoms

What do the authors conclude about vasomotor symptoms in The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trials and Clinical Practice?

In The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trials and Clinical Practice: Abstract – Conclusions and Relevance the authors conclude:

“Menopausal hormone therapy is appropriate to treat bothersome vasomotor symptoms among women in early menopause, without contraindications, who are interested in taking hormone therapy”.12

01 May 2024 Update – Routine Supplementation

What do the authors conclude about routine supplementation in The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trials and Clinical Practice?

In The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trials and Clinical Practice: Abstract – Conclusions and Relevance the authors conclude:

“The WHI evidence does not support routine supplementation with calcium plus vitamin D for menopausal women to prevent fractures or a low-fat diet with increased fruits, vegetables, and grains to prevent breast or colorectal cancer. A potential role of a low-fat dietary pattern in reducing breast cancer mortality, a secondary outcome, warrants further study”.13

Health Care Provider

What if I choose to use HT?

On page one in The North American Menopause Society Releases Its 2022 Hormone Therapy Position Statement, published 07 July 2022 and “endorsed by more than 20 well-respected international organizations”, the North American Menopause Society note:

“Highlights from the NAMS 2022 Hormone Therapy Position Statement include:

  • “Hormone therapy remains the most effective treatment for vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and the genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) and has been shown to prevent bone loss and fracture”.14

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics A-Z related to the Women’s Health Initiative?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Women’s Health Initiative?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. About WHI. Women’s Health Initiative https://www.whi.org/about-whi Accessed: 23 March 2024
  2. About WHI. Women’s Health Initiative https://www.whi.org/about-whi Accessed: 23 March 2024
  3. Women’s Health Initiative (WHI): What Is the Goal of the WHI? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/science/womens-health-initiative-whi Accessed: 23 March 2024
  4. About WHI. Women’s Health Initiative https://www.whi.org/about-whi Accessed: 23 March 2024
  5. Women’s Health Initiative (WHI): What Is the Goal of the WHI? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/science/womens-health-initiative-whi Accessed: 23 March 2024
  6. NAMS Journal Menopause Reflects on the WHI Ten Years Later. 29 May 2012:1. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-document-library/pr12whi.pdf?sfvrsn=2 Accessed: 23 March 2024
  7. Women’s Health Initiative (WHI): At A Glance. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/science/womens-health-initiative-whi Accessed: 23 March 2024
  8. Cagannci, A. and Venier, M. The Controversial History of Hormone Replacement Therapy: Abstract. Published Online 18 September 2019 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6780820/ Accessed: 23 March 2024
  9. About WHI. Women’s Health Initiative https://www.whi.org/about-whi Accessed: 23 March 2024
  10. About WHI. Women’s Health Initiative https://www.whi.org/about-whi Accessed: 23 March 2024
  11. Manson, J.A, E. Crandall, C. J., Rossouw, J. E. et al. The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trials and Clinical Practice: Abstract – Conclusions and Relevance. 01 May 2024 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/ Accessed: 02 May 2024
  12. Manson, J.A, E. Crandall, C. J., Rossouw, J. E. et al. The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trials and Clinical Practice: Abstract – Conclusions and Relevance. 01 May 2024 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/ Accessed: 02 May 2024
  13. Manson, J.A, E. Crandall, C. J., Rossouw, J. E. et al. The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trials and Clinical Practice: Abstract – Conclusions and Relevance. 01 May 2024 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/ Accessed: 02 May 2024
  14. The North American Menopause Society Releases Its 2022 Hormone Therapy Position Statement. 07 July 2022:1. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/press-release/ht-position-statement-release.pdf Accessed: 23 March 2024
Topic Last Updated: 25 June 2024 – Topic Last Reviewed: 23 March 2024

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