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Umbrella
What may the Violence Against Women Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Abuse
  • Abused Women
  • Battered Women
  • Digital Abuse
  • Domestic Abuse/Violence
  • Emotional Abuse
  • Financial Abuse
  • Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)
  • Partner Abuse/Violence
  • Physical Abuse/Violence
  • Reproductive Coercion
  • Safety and Relationships
  • Sexual Abuse/Violence
  • Spousal Abuse/Violence
  • Violence Against Women

Definition

What is violence against women?

DotS the definition of violence against women may vary. The United Nations General Assembly’s definition is:

“In 1993, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (A/RES/48/104). The Declaration defines violence against women as ‘any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life’”.1

Common or Not

How common is violence against women?

In Violence Against Women: Key Facts dated November 2017, the WHO include:

  • “Global estimates published by WHO indicate that about 1 in 3 (35%) of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime
  • Most of this violence is intimate partner violence. Worldwide, almost one third (30%) of women who have been in a relationship report that they have experienced some form of physical and/or sexual violence by their intimate partner in their lifetime
  • Globally, as many as 38% of murders of women are committed by a male intimate partner”.2

In the United States according to a statistic quoted by the (United States) National Domestic Violence Hotline in Get the Facts & Figures: General:

“On average, 24 people per minute are victims of rape, physical violence or stalking by an intimate partner in the United States — more than 12 million women and men over the course of a year”.3

In the United Kingdom according to 2019 statistics quoted by Refuge in Domestic Violence: The Facts – The Extent of Domestic Violence:

“Almost one in three women aged 16-59 will experience domestic abuse in her lifetime. Two women a week are killed by a current or former partner in England and Wales alone. In the year ending March 2019, 1.6 million women experienced domestic abuse”.4

Domestic Violence

What is domestic violence?

DotS the definition of domestic violence may vary. In Abuse Defined: What Is Domestic Violence? the National Domestic Violence Hotline’s definition is:

“Domestic violence (also called intimate partner violence (IPV), domestic abuse or relationship abuse) is a pattern of behaviors used by one partner to maintain power and control over another partner in an intimate relationship”.5

In Domestic Violence: What Is Domestic Violence? the Refuge’s definition is:

“Domestic violence is the systematic pattern of behaviour on the part of the abuser designed to control his partner. The abuse can be physical, emotional, psychological, financial or sexual. Anyone forced to alter their behaviour because they are frightened of their partner’s reaction is being abused. It can begin at any stage of the relationship. Domestic violence is rarely a one-off. Incidents generally become more frequent and severe over time”.6

Types

What are types of domestic violence?

Halfway down the page Abuse Defined: What Is Domestic Violence? Warning Signs of Domestic Violence in Warning Signs of Domestic Violence, the National Domestic Violence Hotline include the tabs:

  • “Physical Abuse…
  • Emotional Abuse…
  • Sexual Abuse & Coercion…
  • Reproductive Coercion…
  • Financial Abuse…
  • Digital Abuse…”.7

Behaviors

What are some domestic violence behaviors?

In Abuse Defined: Warning Signs of Domestic Violence the National Domestic Violence Hotline elaborate on:

“Domestic violence doesn’t look the same in every relationship because every relationship is different. But one thing most abusive relationships have in common is that the abusive partner does many different kinds of things to have more power and control over their partner. Some of the signs of an abusive relationship include a partner who:

  • Tells you that you can never do anything right
  • Shows extreme jealousy of your friends and time spent away
  • Keeps you or discourages you from seeing friends or family members
  • Insults, demeans or shames you with put-downs
  • Controls every penny spent in the household
  • Takes your money or refuses to give you money for necessary expenses
  • Looks at you or acts in ways that scare you
  • Controls who you see, where you go, or what you do…”.8

Pattern

Can domestic violence have a pattern?Violence Against Women

Yes. In Domestic Violence Against Women: Recognize Patterns, Seek Help: Recognize Domestic Violence the (United States) Mayo Clinic elaborate on how to identify domestic violence.

Who

Who can domestic violence happen to?

The National Domestic Violence Hotline explain:

Violence Against Women
“Domestic violence does not discriminate. Anyone of any race, age, sexual orientation, religion or gender can be a victim – or perpetrator – of domestic violence. It can happen to people who are married, living together or who are dating. It affects people of all socioeconomic backgrounds and education levels”.9

Intimate Partner Violence

What is intimate partner violence (IPV)?

DotS the definition of IPV may vary. In Relationships and Safety: Domestic or Intimate Partner Violence the Womenshealth.gov’s definition is:

“Domestic violence is sometimes called intimate partner violence. It includes physical, sexual, or emotional abuse, as well as sexual coercion and stalking by a current or former intimate partner. An intimate partner is a person with whom you have or had a close personal or sexual relationship. Intimate partner violence affects millions of women each year in the United States”.10

The (United States) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s definition is:

“The term “intimate partner violence” describes physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. This type of violence can occur among heterosexual or same-sex couples and does not require sexual intimacy”.11

LGBTQ Violence

What is LGBTQ?

DotS LGBTQ can be an abbreviation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning.

Are abusive partners in LGBTQ relationships, the same as abusive partners in heterosexual relationships?

Yes and no. In LGBTQ Abuse: LGBTQ Relationship Violence the National Domestic Violence Hotline elaborate on:

“Abusive partners in LGBTQ relationships use all the same tactics to gain power and control as abusive partners in heterosexual relationships — physical, sexual or emotional abuse, financial control, isolation and more. But abusive partners in LGBTQ relationships also reinforce their tactics that maintain power and control with societal factors that compound the complexity a survivor faces in leaving or getting safe in an LGBTQ relationship”.12

The Mayo Clinic also note:

“If you’re lesbian, bisexual or transgender, you might also be experiencing domestic violence if you’re in a relationship with someone who:

  • Tells you that authorities won’t help a lesbian, bisexual or transgender person
  • Tells you that leaving the relationship means you’re admitting that lesbian, bisexual or transgender relationships are deviant
  • Says women can’t be violent
  • Justifies abuse by telling you that you’re not “really” lesbian, bisexual or transgender”.13

Elder Abuse

What is elder abuse?

Dots the definition of elder abuse may vary. In Abuse In Later Life the (United States) National Clearinghouse on Abuse In Later Life’s (NCALL) definition includes:

“Abuse in later life and elder abuse are terms used to describe harm to older adults. Abuse in later life and elder abuse can happen to any older adult and can occur in any setting and across all communities and backgrounds”.14

Help

What if I need help?

In Healthy Body: Domestic Violence and Abuse – Getting Help and Support for Domestic Violence the (United Kingdom) NHS (National Health Service) elaborate on:

“You do not have to wait for an emergency situation to find help. If domestic abuse is happening to you, it’s important to tell someone and remember you’re not alone”.15

Local Help

What if I would like local help?

If you would like local help your health care provider, local community health center, national and/or state Domestic Violence Helpline may be able to provide you with information/referral/support to resources/services close to you such as:

  • Community Advocacy e.g. Childcare, Employment Resources, Permanent Housing
  • Counseling
  • Customized and Multicultural Services
  • Emergency Shelter/Women’s Refuge
  • Legal Advocacy
  • Support Groups
  • Transitional Housing

Emergency

What if I need help in an emergency or if I am in immediate danger?

If you need help in an emergency or if you are in immediate danger, call the Police.

Hotline/Helpline

Do some countries have a 24/7 National Domestic Violence hotline/helpline to call?

Yes. Your country may have a hotline/helpline similar to the United States’ 24/7 National Domestic Violence Hotline, Australia’s 24/7 National Sexual Assault, Domestic Family Violence Counselling Service 1800RESPECT or in the United Kingdom, Refuge’s The Freephone, 24-Hour National Domestic Abuse Helpline.

Violence Against WomenIt is important to note different countries can have different National Domestic Violence hotline/helpline numbers to call. It may therefore be in your best interest to choose to check what the number is for you in your country.

In What To Expect When You Contact Us the (United States) National Domestic Violence Hotline elaborate on “some phrases and questions that advocates use consistently to best help each caller or chatter”16.

Phone Bill

Even though hotline/helpline calls may be free, can they appear on phone bills?

Depending on the Country, they may. If you think your phone bill may be checked, call from a friend’s phone, a work phone or what you consider a safe phone.

Website Escape Button

Can some violence against women website pages include an escape or exit button as a way to immediately leave the site?

Yes. In the Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov’s section Relationships and Safety: Escape, topics may include an escape button on the left side of the page which instructs:

“Click the escape button above to immediately leave this site if your abuser may see you reading it”.17

National Helplines

Where may I find my Country’s Helpline?

In Need Help? the [United Nations] UN Women include contact information for national helplines.

HotPeachPages

What is HotPeachPages?

HotPeachPages is an:

“International directory of abuse hotlines, shelters, refuges, crisis centres and women’s organizations, plus domestic violence information in over 110 languages”.18

What do HotPeachPages note about their directory?

On their Home Page HotPeachPages note:

“This site will be fully updated by Aug 2020”.19

HotPeachPages include lists for:HotPeachesPages

The Pixel Project

What does The Pixel Project include?The Pixel Project

In The Pixel Project’s Domestic Violence Resource Page the The Pixel Project elaborate on:

“Welcome to our domestic violence resource page. We have provided links to international and country-linked organisations worldwide for anyone searching for helplines, hotlines, or anti-violence against women experts, activists, and advocates in their country, region, or on an international level. Just click on the name of the organisation or resource to access their website”.21

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics related to Violence Against Women?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Violence Against Women Links

Where may I find Links related to Violence Against Women?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Violence Against Women: Introduction. 29 November 2017. World Health Organization https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/violence-against-women Accessed: 29 June 2020
  2. Violence Against Women (A/RES/48/104). United Nations https://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/vaw/v-overview.htm Accessed: 29 June 2020
  3. Statistics: Get the Facts & Figures – General. National Domestic Violence Hotline https://www.thehotline.org/resources/statistics/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  4. Domestic Violence: The Facts – The Extent of Domestic Violence. Refuge https://www.refuge.org.uk/our-work/forms-of-violence-and-abuse/domestic-violence/domestic-violence-the-facts/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  5. Abuse Defined: What Is Domestic Violence? National Domestic Violence Hotline https://www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  6. Domestic Violence: What Is Domestic Violence? Refuge https://www.refuge.org.uk/our-work/forms-of-violence-and-abuse/domestic-violence/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  7. Abuse Defined: What Is Domestic Violence? Warning Signs of Domestic Violence. National Domestic Violence Hotline https://www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  8. Abuse Defined: Warning Signs of Domestic Violence. National Domestic Violence Hotline https://www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  9. Abuse Defined: What Is Domestic Violence? National Domestic Violence Hotline https://www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  10. Relationships and Safety: Domestic or Intimate Partner Violence. Medical Review In 2017. Page Last Updated: 07 June 2018. Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov https://www.womenshealth.gov/relationships-and-safety/domestic-violence Accessed: 29 June 2020
  11. Violence Prevention: Intimate Partner Violence. Page Last Reviewed: 23 October 2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/index.html Accessed: 29 June 2020
  12. LGBTQ Abuse: LGBTQ Relationship Violence. National Domestic Violence Hotline https://www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/lgbt-abuse/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  13. Domestic Violence Against Women: Recognize Patterns, Seek Help. 25 February 2020. Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/adult-health/in-depth/domestic-violence/art-20048397 Accessed: 29 June 2020
  14. Abuse In Later Life. National Clearing House on Abuse In Later Life https://www.ncall.us/abuse-in-later-life/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  15. Healthy Body: Domestic Violence and Abuse – Getting Help and Support for Domestic Violence. Page Last Reviewed: 30 December 2019. NHS (National Health Service) https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/healthy-body/getting-help-for-domestic-violence/#getting-help-and-support-for-domestic-violence Accessed: 29 June 2020
  16. What To Expect When You Contact Us. National Domestic Violence Hotline https://www.thehotline.org/help/what-to-expect-when-you-contact-the-hotline/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  17. Relationships and Safety: Escape. Medical Review In 2017. Page Last Updated: 17 May 2019. Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov https://www.womenshealth.gov/relationships-and-safety Accessed: 29 June 2020
  18. HotPeachPages. HotPeachPages https://www.hotpeachpages.net/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  19. HotPeachPages. HotPeachPages https://www.hotpeachpages.net/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  20. HotPeachPages. HotPeachPages https://www.hotpeachpages.net/ Accessed: 29 June 2020
  21. Domestic Violence Resource Page. The Pixel Project. https://www.thepixelproject.net/resources/domestic-violence-incest-resource-page/ Accessed: 08 August 2020
Topic Last Updated: 08 August 2020 – Topic Last Reviewed: 29 June 2020
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