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Periods Pattern Snapshot can be a place to start if you are searching for information about perimenopause or menopause periods pattern changes. Read more

Endometriosis after menopause, usually goes away. However, “Some women continue to experience endometriosis symptoms after menopause”. Read more

Jean Hailes September 2018 What’s Hot is the (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health free monthly health article published with the permission of the Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (JH). Read more

Jean Hailes July 2018 What’s Hot is the (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health free monthly health article published with the permission of the Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (JH). Read more

March (and beyond) is international Endometriosis Awareness month. In Endometriosis Awareness 2018 the international Endometriosis.org elaborate on: Read more

Jean Hailes March 2018 What’s Hot is the (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health free monthly health article published with the permission of the Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (JH). Read more

Health Topics

“The first sign of the menopause
is usually a change in
the normal pattern of your periods”. Read more

“Heavy menstrual bleeding affects about one in five women and is a common problem in the 30-50-year-old age group”. Read more

“Pelvic pain is felt below your bellybutton. It may come on suddenly and severely, or could be mild and last for months”. Read more

“PMS symptoms may get worse as you reach your late 30s or 40s and approach menopause and are in the transition to menopause, called perimenopause”.1

Umbrella
What may the Premenstrual Syndrome Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
  • Premenstrual Mood Changes
  • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
  • Premenstrual Tension (PMT)

Premenstrual Changes

What are premenstrual changes?

DotS the definition of premenstrual changes may vary. The (United States Massachusetts General Hospital) MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health explain:

“Many women in their reproductive years experience transient physical and emotional changes around the time of their period. In fact, at least 90% of women with regular menstrual cycles report unpleasant physical or psychological symptoms premenstrually. For the majority of women, these symptoms are mild and tolerable. However, for a certain group of women, these symptoms can be disabling and may cause significant disruption in their lives”.2

Premenstrual Syndrome

What is premenstrual syndrome (PMS)?

DotS the definition of PMS may vary. The MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health’s definition is:

“Premenstrual Syndrome, commonly referred to as PMS, is a broad term that typically refers to a general pattern of physical, emotional and behavioral symptoms occurring 1-2 weeks before and remitting with the onset of menses”.3

The (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health’s (JH) definition is:

“Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to the range of physical and emotional symptoms many women experience in the lead-up to a period”.4

Medline Plus’s definition is:

“PMS refers to a wide range of physical or emotional symptoms that most often occur about 5 to 11 days before a woman starts her monthly menstrual cycle. In most cases, the symptoms stop when, or shortly after, her period begins”.5

PMS Symptoms

What are some PMS symptoms?

In Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Symptoms & Causes – Symptoms the (United States) Mayo Clinic reassure:

“The list of potential signs and symptoms for premenstrual syndrome is long, but most women only experience a few of these problems”.6

In Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): What Are the Symptoms of PMS? the JH also note:

“Symptoms of PMS vary in intensity from woman to woman and can vary from one cycle to the next”.7

PMS Psychological Symptoms

What are PMS psychological/emotional symptoms?

In Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): What Are the Symptoms of PMS? the JH elaborate on:

“Emotional Symptoms:

  • Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Nervous tension
  • Lower coping ability
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Wanting to be alone
  • Lower libido
  • Reduced interest in work and social life
  • Mood swings
  • Depression
  • Aggression
  • Sadness”.8

In PMDD/PMS: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) the MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health elaborate on:

“Psychological Symptoms:

  • Anger
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Sense of feeling overwhelmed
  • Sensitivity to rejection
  • Social withdrawal”.9

PMS Physical Symptoms

What are PMS physical symptoms?

In Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): What Are the Symptoms of PMS? the JH elaborate on:

“Physical Symptoms:

  • Fluid retention (swollen fingers or ankles)
  • Bloating around the abdomen
  • Breast swelling and tenderness
  • Skin problems such as acne
  • Headaches and/or migraines
  • Poor coordination or clumsiness
  • Tiredness, lethargy, insomnia
  • Increase in weight
  • Constipation and/or diarrhea
  • Food cravings
  • Aches and pains”.10

In PMDD/PMS: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) the MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health elaborate on:

“Physical Symptoms:

  • Abdominal bloating
  • Appetite disturbance (usually increased)
  • Breast tenderness
  • Headaches
  • Lethargy or fatigue
  • Muscle aches and/or joint pain
  • Sleep disturbance (usually hypersomnia)
  • Swelling of extremities”.11

PMS Behavioural Symptoms

What are PMS behavioural symptoms?

In PMDD/PMS: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) the MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health elaborate on:

Behavioural Symptoms:

  • “Fatigue
  • Forgetfulness
  • Poor concentration”.12

PMS Common or Not

How common is PMS?

The MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health note:

“PMS is common, affecting from 30-80% of women of reproductive age, though clinically significant PMS symptoms have been reported in 3-8% of patients”.13

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)?

DotS the definition of PMDD may vary. The MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health’s definition is:

“Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a more severe form of Premenstrual Syndrome characterized by significant premenstrual mood disturbance, often with prominent mood reactivity and irritability. Symptoms of PMDD can emerge 1-2 weeks preceding menses and typically resolve with the onset of menses. This mood disturbance results in marked social or occupational impairment, with its most prominent effects in interpersonal functioning”.14

Depression or Not

How is depression different to PMS and PMDD?

The JH explain:

“PMS and PMDD have similar symptoms to depression. However, with PMS and PMDD, the symptoms get better completely as soon as menstruation begins, while those of depression do not.

PMS and PMDD need to be distinguished from underlying depression because the treatments are different”.15

Premenstrual Exacerbation

What is premenstrual exacerbation (PME)?

DotS the definition of PME may vary. In PMDD/PMS: Ruling Out Other Psychiatric Illnesses the MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health explain:

“Mood disorders, such as major depression or bipolar disorder, can worsen during the premenstrual period and thus may mimic PMDD. When this occurs, the term premenstrual exacerbation or PME is used to refer to the mood worsening which occurs during the premenstrual phase. An estimated 40% of women who seek treatment for PMDD actually have a PME of an underlying mood disorder”.16

In What Is PME? the International Association for Premenstrual Disorders elaborate on:

“PME, or premenstrual exacerbation of an underlying disorder, occurs when an woman/AFAB has a chronic diagnosis (e.g., depression, anxiety, arthritis) that is made worse prior to and potentially during their period. The symptoms follow a similar trajectory to PMDD, but they never resolve completely”.17

What is AFAB?

AFAB may be an abbreviation for Assigned Female At Birth.

Cause

What causes PMS?

The Womenshealth.gov note:

“Researchers do not know exactly what causes PMS. Changes in hormone levels during the menstrual cycle may play a role. These changing hormone levels may affect some women more than others”.18

Predictable PatternPremenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Do PMS symptoms tend to recur in a predictable pattern?

Yes. The Mayo Clinic explain:

“Symptoms tend to recur in a predictable pattern. But the physical and emotional changes you experience with premenstrual syndrome may vary from just slightly noticeable all the way to intense”.19

Look for A PatternPremenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

How may I Look for A Pattern with PMS?

In Menstrual Diary the (United Kingdom) National Association for Premenstrual Syndrome explain:

“A completed menstrual chart is the first step towards understanding your own menstrual health”.20

The JH note:

  • “It can be useful to keep a detailed daily diary of at least two menstrual cycles to see if there is a pattern with your symptoms to help you and your doctor discuss the best treatment options for you”.21

The MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health also note:

“The best way to confirm the diagnosis of PMDD is by prospective daily charting of symptoms. Women with PMDD will experience a symptom-free interval between menses and ovulation (the proliferative phase)”.22

In Premenstrual Syndrome – Self Care: Keep A Diary of Symptoms the (United States) MedlinePlus explain:

“Keeping a calendar or diary of your symptoms can help you identify the symptoms that are causing you the most trouble. Writing down your symptoms on a calendar can help you understand possible triggers for your symptoms. It can also help your health care provider choose an approach that is most helpful for you. In your diary or calendar, be sure to record:

  • The type of symptoms you are having
  • How severe your symptoms are
  • How long your symptoms last
  • Did your symptoms respond to a treatment you tried
  • At what point during your cycle do your symptoms occur

You may need to try different things to treat PMS. Some things you try may work, and others may not. Keeping track of your symptoms may help you find the treatments that work best for you”.23

DiaryPremenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Where may I find a diary to keep a record of any symptoms I have?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Menopause

Is there an association between menopause and PMS?

The JH note:

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
“Women can feel depressed and/or experience changes in their mood around perimenopause (the months/years before menopause) when their hormone levels fluctuate. Menopause does not cause depression, but women who have had depression before menopause, or who have a history of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), may be more sensitive to the hormonal changes that menopause brings”.24

In Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Does PMS Change With Age? the Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov explain:

“Yes. PMS symptoms may get worse as you reach your late 30s or 40s and approach menopause and are in the transition to menopause, called perimenopause.

This is especially true for women whose moods are sensitive to changing hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. In the years leading up to menopause, your hormone levels also go up and down in an unpredictable way as your body slowly transitions to menopause. You may get the same mood changes, or they may get worse.

PMS stops after menopause when you no longer get a period”.25

Health Care Provider

What if I would like help with PMS, PMDD or PME?

If you would like help with PMS, PMDD or PME, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this. The Mayo Clinic explain:

“If you haven’t been able to manage your premenstrual syndrome with lifestyle changes and the symptoms of PMS are affecting your health and daily activities, see your doctor”.26

The JH note:

  • “If symptoms persist and interfere with daily activities, see your doctor or seek referral to a gynaecologist with expertise in PMS”.27

The NHS also note:

“As well as changes to your lifestyle, a GP can recommend treatments including:

  • Hormonal medicine – such as the combined contraceptive pill
  • Cognitive behavioural therapy – a talking therapy
  • Antidepressants

If you still get symptoms after trying these treatments, you may be referred to a specialist.

This could be a gynaecologist, psychiatrist or counsellor”.28

Who is a GP?

DotS and DotC (Depending on the Country) a GP may be a qualified and registered general practitioner, a medical practitioner, a medical doctor or a doctor.

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics related to Premenstrual Syndrome?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Premenstrual Syndrome Links?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Does PMS Change With Age? Page Last Updated: 16 March 2018. Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov https://www.womenshealth.gov/menstrual-cycle/premenstrual-syndrome Accessed: 24 May 2021
  2. PMDD/PMS: Premenstrual Mood Changes. MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health https://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd/?doing_wp_cron=1487262997.9087479114532470703125 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  3. PMDD/PMS: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health https://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd/?doing_wp_cron=1487262997.9087479114532470703125 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  4. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Last Updated: 18 November 2020 | Last Reviewed: 10 July 2018. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/periods/premenstrual-syndrome-pms/ Accessed: 24 May 2021
  5. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Review Date: 25 September 2018. Page Last Updated: 04 May 2021. Medline Plus https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007193.htm Accessed: 24 May 2021
  6. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Symptoms & Causes – Symptoms. 07 February 2020. Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/premenstrual-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20376780 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  7. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): What Are the Symptoms of PMS? Last Updated: 18 November 2020 | Last Reviewed: 10 July 2018. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/periods/premenstrual-syndrome-pms/ Accessed: 24 May 2021
  8. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): What Are the Symptoms of PMS? Last Updated: 18 November 2020 | Last Reviewed: 10 July 2018. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/periods/premenstrual-syndrome-pms/ Accessed: 24 May 2021
  9. PMDD/PMS: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health https://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd/?doing_wp_cron=1487262997.9087479114532470703125 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  10. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): What Are the Symptoms of PMS? Last Updated: 18 November 2020 | Last Reviewed: 10 July 2018. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/periods/premenstrual-syndrome-pms/ Accessed: 24 May 2021
  11. PMDD/PMS: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health https://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd/?doing_wp_cron=1487262997.9087479114532470703125 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  12. PMDD/PMS: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health https://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd/?doing_wp_cron=1487262997.9087479114532470703125 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  13. PMDD/PMS: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health https://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd/?doing_wp_cron=1487262997.9087479114532470703125 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  14. PMDD/PMS: Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health https://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd/?doing_wp_cron=1487262997.9087479114532470703125 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  15. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): How Are PMS & PMDD Different From Depression? Last Updated: 18 November 2020 | Last Reviewed: 10 July 2018. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/periods/premenstrual-syndrome-pms/ Accessed: 24 May 2021
  16. PMDD/PMS: Ruling Out Other Psychiatric Illnesses. MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health https://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd/?doing_wp_cron=1487262997.9087479114532470703125 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  17. What Is PME? Updated: 16 November 2019. International Association for Premenstrual Disorders http://faq.iapmd.org/en/articles/2608707-what-is-pme Accessed: 24 May 2021
  18. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): What Causes PMS? Page Last Updated: 16 March 2018. Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov https://www.womenshealth.gov/menstrual-cycle/premenstrual-syndrome Accessed: 24 May 2021
  19. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Symptoms & Causes – Overview. 07 February 2020. Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/premenstrual-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20376780 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  20. Menstrual Diary. National Association for Premenstrual Syndromes https://www.pms.org.uk/support/menstrual-diary/ Accessed: 24 May 2021
  21. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Management & Treatment of PMS Symptoms – Things To Keep In Mind. Last Updated: 18 November 2020 | Last Reviewed: 17 December 2017. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/periods/premenstrual-syndrome-pms/ Accessed: 24 May 2021
  22. PMDD/PMS: Non-Pharmacologic Treatment for PMS and PMDD – Monthly Mood Charting. MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health https://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd/?doing_wp_cron=1487262997.9087479114532470703125 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  23. Premenstrual Syndrome – Self Care:  Keep A Diary of Symptoms. Review Date: 02 June 2020. Page Last Updated: 04 May 2021. MedlinePlus https://www.womenshealth.gov/menstrual-cycle/premenstrual-syndrome Accessed: 24 May 2021
  24. Symptoms of Menopause: Menopause & Mood. Last Updated: 24 March 2021 | Last Reviewed: 17 December 2017. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/menopause-symptoms Accessed: 24 May 2021
  25. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Does PMS Change With Age? Page Last Updated: 16 March 2018. Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov https://www.womenshealth.gov/menstrual-cycle/premenstrual-syndrome Accessed: 24 May 2021
  26. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Symptoms & Causes – Symptoms: When To See A Doctor. 07 February 2020. Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/premenstrual-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20376780 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  27. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Management & Treatment of PMS Symptoms – Things To Keep In Mind. Last Updated: 18 November 2020 | Last Reviewed: 10 July 2018. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/periods/premenstrual-syndrome-pms/ Accessed: 24 May 2021
  28. (PMS) Premenstrual Syndrome: Treating PMS. Page Last Reviewed: 20 April 2018. NHS https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pre-menstrual-syndrome/ Accessed: 24 May 2021

Topic Last Updated: 24 May 2021 – Topic Last Reviewed: 24 May 2021

“…about 90% of women experience 4 to 8 years of menstrual-cycle changes before their periods finally stop at menopause. Most women report irregular periods”.1

Umbrella
What may the Periods and Menopause Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Menstrual Cycle Changes/Symptoms
  • Menstrual Periods Changes/Symptoms
  • Monthly Period Changes/Symptoms
  • Period Changes/Symptoms

First Sign of Menopause Periods and Menopause

How can most women tell if they are approaching menopause?

According to the (United Kingdom) NHS:

“The first sign of the menopause is usually a change in the normal pattern of your periods”.2

Changes

Do periods simply stop or not?

Not usually. In Menopause FAQs: Menopause Symptoms – Q. I am bleeding more often and with heavier periods than I used to. I’m 45 years old. What’s wrong with me? the North American Menopause Society (NAMS) elaborate on:

“A. Probably nothing. As a woman reaches perimenopause, changes in menstrual flow and frequency are common. A few women simply stop menstruating one day and never have another period. But about 90% of women experience 4 to 8 years of menstrual-cycle changes before their periods finally stop at menopause. Most women report irregular periods. These are caused by erratic production of hormones by the ovaries and less frequent ovulation”.3

In Menopause: Symptoms – Changes To Your Periods the NHS explain:

Periods and Menopause

“You may start having either unusually light or heavy periods.

The frequency of your periods may also be affected. You may have them every 2 or 3 weeks, or you may not have them for months at a time.

Eventually, you’ll stop having periods altogether”.4

Pregnant or Not

Is it possible to become pregnant when skipping periods?

Yes. In Menopause: Symptoms & Causes – Symptoms the (United States) Mayo Clinic explain:

“Skipping periods during perimenopause is common and expected. Often, menstrual periods will skip a month and return, or skip several months and then start monthly cycles again for a few months. Periods also tend to happen on shorter cycles, so they are closer together. Despite irregular periods, pregnancy is possible. If you’ve skipped a period but aren’t sure you’ve started the menopausal transition, consider a pregnancy test”.5

Postmenopausal Bleeding

Is postmenopausal bleeding or bleeding after menopause, normal?

No. In Health After Menopause: Postmenopausal Bleeding the (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (JH):

“It is important to note that bleeding after menopause is not normal and should be investigated. Postmenopausal bleeding is bleeding that occurs more than 12 months after your final period (the menopause). It can be bleeding like a period, spotting or staining”.6

Menstrual Calendar

Where may I find a menstrual calendar to keep a record of my periods?

In MenoNotes the North American Menopause Society (NAMS) include:

Health Care Provider

What if my periods are changing?

If your periods are changing, it may be in your best interest to choose to ask your health care provider about this.

In Menopause FAQs: Menopause Symptoms – Q. I am bleeding more often and with heavier periods than I used to. I’m 45 years old. What’s wrong with me? the NAMS explain:

“A. …But, it should not be assumed that any abnormal bleeding is simply a part of normal menopause. Most of the time it is, but abnormal uterine bleeding can be a sign of other problems such as fibroids, polyps, infections, and even cancer. It’s always best to be evaluated by a healthcare provider if the bleeding is very heavy or prolonged”.7

In Menstrual Calendar the NAMS also note:

“Call your health care provider if you experience:

  • Periods that are much heavier than usual
  • Spotting or bleeding between periods
  • Periods that last longer than 10 days
  • Bleeding after sex
  • Frequent periods (fewer than 21 days between periods)
  • Any bleeding after menopause”.8

In Menopause, Perimenopause, and Postmenopause: Living With – How Do I Know If Changes In My Periods Are Normal Perimenopausal Symptoms or Something To Be Concerned About? the (United States) Cleveland Clinic explain:

“Irregular periods are common and normal during perimenopause (the menopause transition). But other conditions can cause abnormalities in menstrual bleeding. If any of the following situations apply to you, see a doctor to rule out other causes.

  • Your periods are changing to become very heavy, or accompanied by blood clots
  • Your periods last several days longer than usual
  • You spot or bleed after your period
  • You experience spotting after sex
  • Your periods occur closer together”.9

In About the Menstrual Cycle the JH also note:

“When To See Your Doctor

There are many reasons you might need to see your doctor about your periods including:

  • Changes in the pattern of your periods
  • Increasingly heavy periods
  • Long periods of more than eight days
  • Periods that come fewer than three weeks apart
  • Periods coming more than two to three months apart
  • Painful periods that cause you to stay home
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Bleeding after intercourse

Your menstrual cycle is a normal process for your body. Each woman experiences her menstrual cycle differently, most without any difficulties. If there is any change in your cycle that worries you, see your doctor”.10

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics related to Periods and Menopause?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Periods and Menopause?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Menopause FAQs: Menopause Symptoms – Q. I am bleeding more often and with heavier periods than I used to. I’m 45 years old. What’s wrong with me? North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopause-faqs-menopause-symptoms Accessed: 24 May 2021
  2. Menopause: Symptoms – Changes To Your Periods. Page Last Reviewed: 29 August 2018. NHS https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/menopause/symptoms/#changes-to-your-periods Accessed: 24 May 2021
  3. Menopause FAQs: Menopause Symptoms – Q. I am bleeding more often and with heavier periods than I used to. I’m 45 years old. What’s wrong with me? North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopause-faqs-menopause-symptoms Accessed: 24 May 2021
  4. Menopause: Symptoms – Changes To Your Periods. Page Last Reviewed: 29 August 2018. NHS https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/menopause/symptoms/#changes-to-your-periods Accessed: 24 May 2021
  5. Menopause: Symptoms & Causes – Symptoms. 14 October 2020. Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/menopause/symptoms-causes/syc-20353397 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  6. Health After Menopause: Postmenopausal Bleeding. Last Updated: 25 March 2021 | Last Reviewed: 17 December 2017. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/health-after-menopause#postmenopausal-bleeding Accessed: 24 May 2021
  7. Menopause FAQs: Menopause Symptoms – Q. I am bleeding more often and with heavier periods than I used to. I’m 45 years old. What’s wrong with me? North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopause-faqs-menopause-symptoms Accessed: 24 May 2021
  8. Menstrual Calendar. 2015. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2015/menonote-menstrual-calendar-english.pdf Accessed: 24 May 2021
  9. Menopause, Perimenopause, and Postmenopause: Living With – How Do I Know If Changes In My Periods Are Normal Perimenopausal Symptoms or Something To Be Concerned About? This Document Was Last Reviewed on: 24 December 2019. Cleveland Clinic https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15224-menopause-perimenopause-and-postmenopause/living-with Accessed: 24 May 2021
  10. About the Menstrual Cycle: When To See Your Doctor. Last Updated: 03 March 2020 | Last Reviewed: 10 July 2018. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/periods/about-the-menstrual-cycle Accessed: 24 May 2021

Topic Last Updated: 18 June 2021 – Topic Last Reviewed: 24 May 2021

“Endometriosis affects an estimated 1 in 10 women during their reproductive years (ie. usually between the ages of 15 to 49), which is approximately 176 million women…”.1

Umbrella
What may the Endometriosis Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Endo
  • Endometriosis

Endometriosis

What is endometriosis?

DotS the definition of endometriosis may vary. The (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (JH) definition is:

“Endometriosis, pronounced end-o-me-tree-oh-sis (or just endo), is a progressive, chronic condition where cells similar to those that line the uterus (the endometrium) are found in other parts of the body. It most commonly occurs in the pelvis and can affect a woman’s reproductive organs”.2

The World Endometriosis Society; and the World Endometriosis Research Foundation’s definition is:

“Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining inside the uterus (called “the endometrium”), is found outside the uterus, where it induces a chronic inflammatory reaction that may result in scar tissue. It is primarily found on the pelvic peritoneum, on the ovaries, in the recto-vaginal septum, on the bladder, and bowel. In very rare cases it has been found on the diaphragm and in the lungs”.3

Cause

What causes endometriosis?

In Facts About Endometriosis the World Endometriosis Society; and the World Endometriosis Research Foundation elaborate on:

“There is no known cause of endometriosis but it is highly likely that certain genes predispose women to develop the disease. Thus, women have a higher risk of developing endometriosis if their mother and/or sister(s) are also affected. It is possible that age when the menstrual period starts, other gynaecologic factors, and environmental exposures influence whether a woman is affected. Whereas evidence has been weak with regards to exposure to dioxin (an environmental pollutant) some evidence now supports exacerbation of its symptoms due to PCBs”.4

Common or Not

How common is endometriosis?

According to the World Endometriosis Society; and the World Endometriosis Research Foundation:

“Endometriosis affects an estimated 1 in 10 women during their reproductive years (ie. usually between the ages of 15 to 49), which is approximately 176 million women in the world”.5

In Endometriosis 2011 statistics quoted by the Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov are:

“It may affect more than 11% of American women between 15 and 44”.6

In Endometriosis Facts and Figures “the latest facts and figures about endometriosis” quoted by Endometriosis UK (United Kingdom) dated 2009, include:

  • “1 in 10 women of reproductive age in the UK suffer from endometriosis”.7

Diagnosis

How is endometriosis diagnosed?

In Endometriosis Treatment and Support: How Can Endometriosis Be Diagnosed? the (United States) Endometriosis Foundation elaborate on:

“There are a number of diagnostic tools that physicians use that may raise suspicion of endometriosis, but the only definitive method of diagnosis is through minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery and biopsy of affected tissue. If you suspect you have endometriosis, ask your physician about these different diagnostic tools (see below). Don’t be afraid to get a second opinion if you feel that you need more information about endometriosis diagnosis”.8

Look for A PatternEndometriosis

If I think I have endometriosis how may I look for a pattern?

In Endometriosis: Diagnosis – Information Your Doctor Will Need the JH elaborate on:

“If you think you have endometriosis, keeping a diary of your symptoms is a good way to help your doctor or gynaecologist find out what is wrong. Your doctor may ask questions as part of the diagnosis, so having all the information ready will help. The types of questions you might need to answer are listed below.

  • Periods….
  • Period Pain…
  • Other Pain…
  • Other Symptoms…”.9

Management

What may endometriosis management include?

In About Endometriosis: Symptoms of Endometriosis the Endometriosis.org elaborate on:

“For many women, management of this disease may be a long-term process. Therefore, it is important to educate yourself, take the time to find a good doctor, and consider joining a local support group”.10

Menopause

Is there an association between menopause and endometriosis?

In Endometriosis: Does Endometriosis Go Away After Menopause? Womenshealth.gov explain:

Endometriosis After Menopause

“For some women, the painful symptoms of endometriosis improve after menopause. As the body stops making the hormone estrogen, the growths shrink slowly. However, some women who take menopausal hormone therapy may still have symptoms of endometriosis.

If you are having symptoms of endometriosis after menopause, talk to your doctor about treatment options”.11

In Endometriosis: Symptoms & Causes – Symptoms During Menopause the JH explain:

“Usually, endometriosis does go away after menopause. Uncommonly, it can return with the use of menopausal hormone therapy, or MHT (formerly called hormone replacement therapy, or HRT), especially if there is no progestogen component. Even more rarely, it can return for no reason without any hormonal treatment”.12

Health Care Provider

What if I think I have endometriosis?

If you think you have endometriosis, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this.

In Endometriosis: Diagnosis the JH elaborate on:

“If you think you have endometriosis, see your health care practitioner who can refer you to a specialist gynaecologist. It is important not to delay seeing your doctor, as early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the severity of the disease.

It is also important to know that many women do not get a correct diagnosis for seven to 10 years because the symptoms can vary between women and can change over time. Diagnosis can also be delayed by period pain often being considered as normal by both the community and health professionals”.13

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics related to Endometriosis?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

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Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

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Sources

  1. Facts About Endometriosis. September 2015. World Endometriosis Society; and World Endometriosis Research Foundation https://endometriosisfoundation.org/Facts-about-endometriosis.pdf Accessed: 23 May 2021
  2. Endometriosis: Symptoms & Causes. Last Updated: 02 March 2021 | Last Reviewed: 15 May 2019. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/endometriosis/symptoms-causes Accessed: 23 May 2021
  3. Facts About Endometriosis. September 2015. World Endometriosis Society; and World Endometriosis Research Foundation https://endometriosisfoundation.org/Facts-about-endometriosis.pdf Accessed: 23 May 2021
  4. Facts About Endometriosis. September 2015. World Endometriosis Society; and World Endometriosis Research Foundation https://endometriosisfoundation.org/Facts-about-endometriosis.pdf Accessed: 23 May 2021
  5. Facts About Endometriosis. September 2015. World Endometriosis Society; and World Endometriosis Research Foundation https://endometriosisfoundation.org/Facts-about-endometriosis.pdf Accessed: 23 May 2021
  6. Endometriosis. Page Last Updated: 01 April 2019. Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/endometriosis Accessed: 23 May 2021
  7. Endometriosis Facts and Figures. Endometriosis UK http://endometriosis-uk.org/endometriosis-facts-and-figures Accessed: 23 May 2021
  8. Endometriosis Treatment and Support: How Can Endometriosis Be Diagnosed? Endometriosis Foundation https://www.endofound.org/endometriosis-treatment-support Accessed: 23 May 2021
  9. Endometriosis: Diagnosis – Information Your Doctor Will Need. Last Updated: 28 September 2020 | Last Reviewed: 15 May 2019. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/endometriosis/diagnosis Accessed: 23 May 2021
  10. About Endometriosis: Symptoms of Endometriosis. Endometriosis.org https://endometriosis.org/endometriosis/ Accessed: 23 May 2021
  11. Endometriosis: Does Endometriosis Go Away After Menopause? Page Last Updated: 01 April 2019. Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/endometriosis Accessed: 23 May 2021
  12. Endometriosis: Symptoms & Causes – Symptoms During Menopause. Last Updated: 02 March 2021 | Last Reviewed: 15 May 2019. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/endometriosis/symptoms-causes Accessed: 23 May 2021
  13. Endometriosis: Diagnosis. Last Updated: 28 September 2020 | Last Reviewed: 15 May 2019. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/endometriosis/diagnosis Accessed: 23 May 2021

Topic Last Updated: 10 July 2021 – Topic Last Reviewed: 23 May 2021

“It is important to note that women who have gone through the menopause should not have any vaginal bleeding/spotting. If this occurs, see your doctor”. Read more