Health Topics

“Black women have higher rates of many illnesses, such as hypertension, breast cancer at young ages, diabetes, stroke, and lupus”. Read more

“Heavy menstrual bleeding affects about one in five women and is a common problem in the 30-50-year-old age group”. Read more

“Having a hysterectomy is major surgery. The decision to have a hysterectomy should only be made after you have been given adequate information about why you…”. Read more

“The five types of gynecologic cancers are
ovarian, endometrial/uterine, cervical,
vulvar and vaginal cancer”. Read more

“…about 90% of women experience 4 to 8 years of menstrual-cycle changes before their periods finally stop at menopause. Most women report irregular periods”.1

Umbrella
What may the Periods and Menopause Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Menstrual Cycle Changes/Symptoms
  • Menstrual Periods Changes/Symptoms
  • Monthly Period Changes/Symptoms
  • Period Changes/Symptoms

First Sign of Menopause Periods and Menopause

How can most women tell if they are approaching menopause?

According to the (United Kingdom) NHS:

“The first sign of the menopause is usually a change in the normal pattern of your periods”.2

Changes

Do periods simply stop or not?

Not usually. In Menopause FAQs: Menopause Symptoms – Q. I am bleeding more often and with heavier periods than I used to. I’m 45 years old. What’s wrong with me? the North American Menopause Society (NAMS) elaborate on:

“A. Probably nothing. As a woman reaches perimenopause, changes in menstrual flow and frequency are common. A few women simply stop menstruating one day and never have another period. But about 90% of women experience 4 to 8 years of menstrual-cycle changes before their periods finally stop at menopause. Most women report irregular periods. These are caused by erratic production of hormones by the ovaries and less frequent ovulation”.3

In Menopause: Symptoms – Changes To Your Periods the NHS explain:

Periods and Menopause

“You may start having either unusually light or heavy periods.

The frequency of your periods may also be affected. You may have them every 2 or 3 weeks, or you may not have them for months at a time.

Eventually, you’ll stop having periods altogether”.4

Pregnant or Not

Is it possible to become pregnant when skipping periods?

Yes. In Menopause: Symptoms & Causes – Symptoms the (United States) Mayo Clinic explain:

“Skipping periods during perimenopause is common and expected. Often, menstrual periods will skip a month and return, or skip several months and then start monthly cycles again for a few months. Periods also tend to happen on shorter cycles, so they are closer together. Despite irregular periods, pregnancy is possible. If you’ve skipped a period but aren’t sure you’ve started the menopausal transition, consider a pregnancy test”.5

Postmenopausal Bleeding

Is postmenopausal bleeding or bleeding after menopause, normal?

No. In Health After Menopause: Postmenopausal Bleeding the (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (JH):

“It is important to note that bleeding after menopause is not normal and should be investigated. Postmenopausal bleeding is bleeding that occurs more than 12 months after your final period (the menopause). It can be bleeding like a period, spotting or staining”.6

Menstrual Calendar

Where may I find a menstrual calendar to keep a record of my periods?

In MenoNotes the North American Menopause Society (NAMS) include:

Health Care Provider

What if my periods are changing?

If your periods are changing, it may be in your best interest to choose to ask your health care provider about this.

In Menopause FAQs: Menopause Symptoms – Q. I am bleeding more often and with heavier periods than I used to. I’m 45 years old. What’s wrong with me? the NAMS explain:

“A. …But, it should not be assumed that any abnormal bleeding is simply a part of normal menopause. Most of the time it is, but abnormal uterine bleeding can be a sign of other problems such as fibroids, polyps, infections, and even cancer. It’s always best to be evaluated by a healthcare provider if the bleeding is very heavy or prolonged”.7

In Menstrual Calendar the NAMS also note:

“Call your health care provider if you experience:

  • Periods that are much heavier than usual
  • Spotting or bleeding between periods
  • Periods that last longer than 10 days
  • Bleeding after sex
  • Frequent periods (fewer than 21 days between periods)
  • Any bleeding after menopause”.8

In Menopause, Perimenopause, and Postmenopause: Living With – How Do I Know If Changes In My Periods Are Normal Perimenopausal Symptoms or Something To Be Concerned About? the (United States) Cleveland Clinic explain:

“Irregular periods are common and normal during perimenopause (the menopause transition). But other conditions can cause abnormalities in menstrual bleeding. If any of the following situations apply to you, see a doctor to rule out other causes.

  • Your periods are changing to become very heavy, or accompanied by blood clots
  • Your periods last several days longer than usual
  • You spot or bleed after your period
  • You experience spotting after sex
  • Your periods occur closer together”.9

In About the Menstrual Cycle the JH also note:

“When To See Your Doctor

There are many reasons you might need to see your doctor about your periods including:

  • Changes in the pattern of your periods
  • Increasingly heavy periods
  • Long periods of more than eight days
  • Periods that come fewer than three weeks apart
  • Periods coming more than two to three months apart
  • Painful periods that cause you to stay home
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Bleeding after intercourse

Your menstrual cycle is a normal process for your body. Each woman experiences her menstrual cycle differently, most without any difficulties. If there is any change in your cycle that worries you, see your doctor”.10

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics related to Periods and Menopause?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Periods and Menopause?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Menopause FAQs: Menopause Symptoms – Q. I am bleeding more often and with heavier periods than I used to. I’m 45 years old. What’s wrong with me? North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopause-faqs-menopause-symptoms Accessed: 24 May 2021
  2. Menopause: Symptoms – Changes To Your Periods. Page Last Reviewed: 29 August 2018. NHS https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/menopause/symptoms/#changes-to-your-periods Accessed: 24 May 2021
  3. Menopause FAQs: Menopause Symptoms – Q. I am bleeding more often and with heavier periods than I used to. I’m 45 years old. What’s wrong with me? North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopause-faqs-menopause-symptoms Accessed: 24 May 2021
  4. Menopause: Symptoms – Changes To Your Periods. Page Last Reviewed: 29 August 2018. NHS https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/menopause/symptoms/#changes-to-your-periods Accessed: 24 May 2021
  5. Menopause: Symptoms & Causes – Symptoms. 14 October 2020. Mayo Clinic https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/menopause/symptoms-causes/syc-20353397 Accessed: 24 May 2021
  6. Health After Menopause: Postmenopausal Bleeding. Last Updated: 25 March 2021 | Last Reviewed: 17 December 2017. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/menopause/health-after-menopause#postmenopausal-bleeding Accessed: 24 May 2021
  7. Menopause FAQs: Menopause Symptoms – Q. I am bleeding more often and with heavier periods than I used to. I’m 45 years old. What’s wrong with me? North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopause-faqs-menopause-symptoms Accessed: 24 May 2021
  8. Menstrual Calendar. 2015. North American Menopause Society https://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2015/menonote-menstrual-calendar-english.pdf Accessed: 24 May 2021
  9. Menopause, Perimenopause, and Postmenopause: Living With – How Do I Know If Changes In My Periods Are Normal Perimenopausal Symptoms or Something To Be Concerned About? This Document Was Last Reviewed on: 24 December 2019. Cleveland Clinic https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15224-menopause-perimenopause-and-postmenopause/living-with Accessed: 24 May 2021
  10. About the Menstrual Cycle: When To See Your Doctor. Last Updated: 03 March 2020 | Last Reviewed: 10 July 2018. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://www.jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/periods/about-the-menstrual-cycle Accessed: 24 May 2021

Topic Last Updated: 24 May 2021 – Topic Last Reviewed: 24 May 2021

“Endometriosis affects an estimated 1 in 10 women during their reproductive years (ie. usually between the ages of 15 to 49), which is approximately 176 million women…”.1

Umbrella
What may the Endometriosis Umbrella include?

Depending on the Source (DotS) this Umbrella may include:

  • Endo
  • Endometriosis

Endometriosis

What is endometriosis?

DotS the definition of endometriosis may vary. The (Australian) Jean Hailes for Women’s Health (JH) definition is:

“Endometriosis, pronounced end-o-me-tree-oh-sis (or just endo), is a progressive, chronic condition where cells similar to those that line the uterus (the endometrium) are found in other parts of the body. It most commonly occurs in the pelvis and can affect a woman’s reproductive organs”.2

The World Endometriosis Society; and the World Endometriosis Research Foundation’s definition is:

“Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining inside the uterus (called “the endometrium”), is found outside the uterus, where it induces a chronic inflammatory reaction that may result in scar tissue. It is primarily found on the pelvic peritoneum, on the ovaries, in the recto-vaginal septum, on the bladder, and bowel. In very rare cases it has been found on the diaphragm and in the lungs”.3

Cause

What causes endometriosis?

In Facts About Endometriosis the World Endometriosis Society; and the World Endometriosis Research Foundation elaborate on:

“There is no known cause of endometriosis but it is highly likely that certain genes predispose women to develop the disease. Thus, women have a higher risk of developing endometriosis if their mother and/or sister(s) are also affected. It is possible that age when the menstrual period starts, other gynaecologic factors, and environmental exposures influence whether a woman is affected. Whereas evidence has been weak with regards to exposure to dioxin (an environmental pollutant) some evidence now supports exacerbation of its symptoms due to PCBs”.4

Common or Not

How common is endometriosis?

According to the World Endometriosis Society; and the World Endometriosis Research Foundation:

“Endometriosis affects an estimated 1 in 10 women during their reproductive years (ie. usually between the ages of 15 to 49), which is approximately 176 million women in the world”.5

In Endometriosis 2011 statistics quoted by the Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov are:

“It may affect more than 11% of American women between 15 and 44”.6

In Endometriosis Facts and Figures “the latest facts and figures about endometriosis” quoted by Endometriosis UK (United Kingdom) dated 2009, include:

  • “1 in 10 women of reproductive age in the UK suffer from endometriosis”.7

Diagnosis

How is endometriosis diagnosed?

In Endometriosis Treatment and Support: How Can Endometriosis Be Diagnosed? the (United States) Endometriosis Foundation elaborate on:

“There are a number of diagnostic tools that physicians use that may raise suspicion of endometriosis, but the only definitive method of diagnosis is through minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery and biopsy of affected tissue. If you suspect you have endometriosis, ask your physician about these different diagnostic tools (see below). Don’t be afraid to get a second opinion if you feel that you need more information about endometriosis diagnosis”.8

Look for A PatternEndometriosis

If I think I have endometriosis how may I look for a pattern?

In Endometriosis: Diagnosis – Information Your Doctor Will Need the JH elaborate on:

“If you think you have endometriosis, keeping a diary of your symptoms is a good way to help your doctor or gynaecologist find out what is wrong. Your doctor may ask questions as part of the diagnosis, so having all the information ready will help. The types of questions you might need to answer are listed below.

  • Periods….
  • Period Pain…
  • Other Pain…
  • Other Symptoms…”.9

Management

What may endometriosis management include?

In About Endometriosis: Symptoms of Endometriosis the Endometriosis.org elaborate on:

“For many women, management of this disease may be a long-term process. Therefore, it is important to educate yourself, take the time to find a good doctor, and consider joining a local support group”.10

Menopause

Is there an association between menopause and endometriosis?

In Endometriosis: Does Endometriosis Go Away After Menopause? Womenshealth.gov explain:

Endometriosis After Menopause

“For some women, the painful symptoms of endometriosis improve after menopause. As the body stops making the hormone estrogen, the growths shrink slowly. However, some women who take menopausal hormone therapy may still have symptoms of endometriosis.

If you are having symptoms of endometriosis after menopause, talk to your doctor about treatment options”.11

In Endometriosis: Symptoms & Causes – Symptoms During Menopause the JH explain:

“Usually, endometriosis does go away after menopause. Uncommonly, it can return with the use of menopausal hormone therapy, or MHT (formerly called hormone replacement therapy, or HRT), especially if there is no progestogen component. Even more rarely, it can return for no reason without any hormonal treatment”.12

Health Care Provider

What if I think I have endometriosis?

If you think you have endometriosis, it may be in your best interest to choose to talk to your health care provider about this.

In Endometriosis: Diagnosis the JH elaborate on:

“If you think you have endometriosis, see your health care practitioner who can refer you to a specialist gynaecologist. It is important not to delay seeing your doctor, as early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the severity of the disease.

It is also important to know that many women do not get a correct diagnosis for seven to 10 years because the symptoms can vary between women and can change over time. Diagnosis can also be delayed by period pain often being considered as normal by both the community and health professionals”.13

Health Topics A-Z

Where may I find Health Topics related to Endometriosis?

In Health Topics A-Z you may find:

Links

Where may I find Links related to Endometriosis?

Your Country may have Links similar to:

Sources

Where may I find the Sources quoted?

You may find the Sources quoted at:

Sources

  1. Facts About Endometriosis. September 2015. World Endometriosis Society; and World Endometriosis Research Foundation https://endometriosisfoundation.org/Facts-about-endometriosis.pdf Accessed: 23 May 2021
  2. Endometriosis: Symptoms & Causes. Last Updated: 02 March 2021 | Last Reviewed: 15 May 2019. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/endometriosis/symptoms-causes Accessed: 23 May 2021
  3. Facts About Endometriosis. September 2015. World Endometriosis Society; and World Endometriosis Research Foundation https://endometriosisfoundation.org/Facts-about-endometriosis.pdf Accessed: 23 May 2021
  4. Facts About Endometriosis. September 2015. World Endometriosis Society; and World Endometriosis Research Foundation https://endometriosisfoundation.org/Facts-about-endometriosis.pdf Accessed: 23 May 2021
  5. Facts About Endometriosis. September 2015. World Endometriosis Society; and World Endometriosis Research Foundation https://endometriosisfoundation.org/Facts-about-endometriosis.pdf Accessed: 23 May 2021
  6. Endometriosis. Page Last Updated: 01 April 2019. Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/endometriosis Accessed: 23 May 2021
  7. Endometriosis Facts and Figures. Endometriosis UK http://endometriosis-uk.org/endometriosis-facts-and-figures Accessed: 23 May 2021
  8. Endometriosis Treatment and Support: How Can Endometriosis Be Diagnosed? Endometriosis Foundation https://www.endofound.org/endometriosis-treatment-support Accessed: 23 May 2021
  9. Endometriosis: Diagnosis – Information Your Doctor Will Need. Last Updated: 28 September 2020 | Last Reviewed: 15 May 2019. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/endometriosis/diagnosis Accessed: 23 May 2021
  10. About Endometriosis: Symptoms of Endometriosis. Endometriosis.org https://endometriosis.org/endometriosis/ Accessed: 23 May 2021
  11. Endometriosis: Does Endometriosis Go Away After Menopause? Page Last Updated: 01 April 2019. Office on Women’s Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Womenshealth.gov https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/endometriosis Accessed: 23 May 2021
  12. Endometriosis: Symptoms & Causes – Symptoms During Menopause. Last Updated: 02 March 2021 | Last Reviewed: 15 May 2019. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/endometriosis/symptoms-causes Accessed: 23 May 2021
  13. Endometriosis: Diagnosis. Last Updated: 28 September 2020 | Last Reviewed: 15 May 2019. Jean Hailes for Women’s Health https://jeanhailes.org.au/health-a-z/endometriosis/diagnosis Accessed: 23 May 2021

Topic Last Updated: 25 May 2021 – Topic Last Reviewed: 23 May 2021

“‘Early menopause’ is when the final menstrual period occurs between 40 and 45 years”. Read more

“A surgical menopause can be a difficult time for many women. Menopausal symptoms are often severe, and depression and anxiety are more likely”. Read more

“If you do not have a uterus,
you can take estrogen alone,
without a progestogen”. Read more

“Induced menopause refers to menstrual periods that stop after surgical removal of the ovaries, chemotherapy or radiation damage to the ovaries, or from…”. Read more